Informe sobre el país: Kuwait

Ultima revisión: 31 Mar 1998
31 Mar 1998

1 Conscription

conscription exists

Conscription has existed ever since Kuwait achieved independence in 1961. Kuwait is, in fact, the only Persian Gulf State that has conscription.

Conscription is enshrined in arts. 47 and 158 of the Constitution, which describe national defence as a sacred and honourable duty regulated by law. [5]

The present legal basis of conscription is the 1980 Compulsory Service Act (Law 102/1980). [1]

military service

All men aged 18 to 30 are liable for military service. [1]

Military service lasts for two years, and one year in the case of university graduates. [2] [4]

Reserve service is required up to the age of 40. It involves a month's training per year. [8]

postponement and exemption

Postponement is allowed in the case of students and for domestic reasons. It is usually granted up to the age of 28, sometimes up to the age of 33. [1]

Exemptions are granted very liberally - in fact most young men get exempted in one way or another. [2]

recruitment

Call-up takes place at the age of 18. According to the government most conscripts in the armed forces are aged 22 to 28.

Minimum enlistment age is 18. [1] [2]

Because of the liberal exemption policy, only a small percentage of liable conscripts is actually recruited.

After the 1991 Gulf War the government's stated aim was to have armed forces of 30,000 troops - that is, twice the current strength. Owing to the unpopularity of military service amongst the Kuwaiti population, it proves hard to reach this target. [2]

Traditionally, as in many Persian Gulf States, the Kuwaiti armed forces consist to a large extent of foreign volunteers. Before the 1991 Gulf War, only 20 to 30 percent of troops were Kuwaiti citizens. After the 1991 Iraqi invasion many non-Kuwaiti citizens - notably Palestinians and Bedouins - were expelled from the armed forces for alleged collaboration with Iraq.

The Bedouin case is particularly significant. Ever since independence they have been the backbone of the Kuwaiti armed forces: before 1991 approximately 90 percent of the professional army rank-and-file were Bedouins. In 1995 the figure was believed to be only 25 percent. Bedouins are not liable for conscription, as they are not considered Kuwaiti citizens. Many of them have joined the armed forces because they have seen this as a means of rising in the social scale, since government officials have promised that an army career could lead to achieving Kuwaiti citizenship. [2] [7]

2 Conscientious objection

The right to conscientious objection is not legally recognized and there are no provisions for substitute service. [3] [4]

The government stated in 1980: "There are no legal provisions under which a Kuwaiti national who satisfies the conditions specified in the Compulsory Military Service Act (...) may be relieved of his responsibility to bear arms in defence of the integrity of his country." [6]

3 Draft evasion and desertion

penalties

No information available.

practice

Military service is very unpopular amongst the Kuwaiti population. Exemptions are granted very liberally and most young men evade the draft by getting exempted for one reason or another. [2]

6 Annual statistics

The armed forces are 15,300-strong - that is 0.92 percent of the population. Each year some 17,600 young men reach conscription age. [8]

Sources

[1] UN Commission on Human Rights 1992. Updated report of the Secretary-General prepared pursuant to Sub-Commission on prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities resolution 1991/34. United Nations, Geneva. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1992/35/Add.1 [2] US Library of Congress 1993. Persian Gulf States - a country study. Area Handbooks, State Department, Washington DC. [3] Amnesty International 1991. Conscientious objection to military service. AI, London. [4] UN Commission on Human Rights, 1997. The question of conscientious objection to military service, report of the Secretary-General prepared pursuant to Commission resolution 1995/83. United Nations, Geneva. [5] Eide, A., C. Mubanga-Chipoya 1985. Conscientious objection to military service, report prepared in pursuance of resolutions 14 (XXXIV) and 1982/30 of the Sub-Commission of Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities. United Nations, New York. [6] UN Commission on Human Rights, 1980. Report by the Secretary-General. United Nations, Geneva. [7] Human Rights Watch/Middle East 1995. The Bedouins of Kuwait - "Citizens without Citizenship". HRW, New York. [8] Institute for Strategic Studies 1997. Military Balance 1997/98. ISS, London. [9] DIRB, 19 October 1992.

Recent stories on conscientious objection: Kuwait

15 Feb 2018

Durante muchos años, parecía que el servicio militar obligatorio estaba a punto de desaparecer. Pero en los últimos cinco años, la imagen ha cambiado: Noruega extendió el servicio militar obligatorio para las mujeres; Suecia ha reintroducido el servicio militar obligatorio para todos; Ucrania, Georgia, Lituania y Kuwait han reintroducido el servicio militar obligatorio para hombres después de breves hiatos; Qatar y los Emiratos Árabes Unidos han introducido el servicio militar obligatorio por primera vez. Vemos por qué los gobiernos recurren a la compulsión para llenar sus ejércitos, y lo que esto significa para los movimientos pacifistas.

05 Ago 2010

El Kuwait Times informó el 15 de julio que los políticos y funcionarios del gobierno de Kuwait están debatiendo actualmente la posibilidad de reintroducir un periodo de servicio militar obligatorio para los ciudadanos varones en edades comprendidas entre los 21 y 30 años. Este sistema se aseguraría de que todos los hombres sin discapacidad que se encuentren en este grupo de edad hagan por un año el servicio militar kuwaití, mientras que para las mujeres en el mismo grupo de edad puede ser optativo.

12 Mar 2009

El priódico Kuwait Times publicó el 19 de febrero que las autoridades kuwaitíes planean reponer la ley sobre reclutamiento antes de finales del 2009, después de una suspensión de ocho años. El proyecto de ley será repasado en primer lugar por un comité de alto nivel, y después será sometido a la Asamblea nacional. Altos funcionarios dijeron que los reclutas jovenes recibirán un permiso mensual, a añadir a sus salarios. Aquellos que estudian en el exterior, familias con un único hijo (varón), y diplomáticos serán exentos del servicio, según informó al-Waset.

27 Jul 2000

CCPR/CO/69/KWT
27 de julio de 2000

(...)

24. El Comité toma nota de la existencia del servicio militar obligatorio y de que el derecho kuwaití no contiene ninguna disposición relativa a la objeción de conciencia.

Con miras a llevar a la práctica el artículo 18 del Pacto, el Estado Parte debería recoger en su legislación la situación de las personas que creen que el uso de la fuerza armada es contrario a sus convicciones, y establecer para esos casos un servicio civil alternativo.

(...)

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