Informe sobre el país: Syria

Ultima revisión: 25 Abr 1998
25 Abr 1998
25/04/1998

1 Conscription

conscription exists

Conscription exists since 1946.

Conscription is enshrined in art. 40 of the Constitution, which states: "(I) All citizens have an obligation to carry out their sacred duty to defend the security of the homeland and to respect its Constitution and the socialist union system. (II) Military service is compulsory and is regulated by law."

The present legal basis of conscription is the 1953 National Service Act. [10]

military service

All men between the ages of 18 and 40 are liable for military service. [2]

The length of military service is 30 months. [3] [11]

Reserve duties apply up to the age of 50 and can consist of six months' training. It is not clear to what extent reserve training actually takes place - as in 1991 there was actually no reserve service. [2]

postponement and exemption

Postponement is possible for students. In the course of their studies students may perform one and a half month's military training annually. At the end of their studies (which normally lasts for four years) these six months' military training are reduced from the full length of military service, which means the students still have to perform two years' military service. [2]

Exemption is possible for domestic reasons (for instance in the case of only sons) and for serious medical reasons. [2]

Young men living abroad in Arab countries can be exempted on payment of a fee. Those who have worked in the Gulf states for five years, or who have finished their studies in Europe or the USA, may be exempted from military service on payment of USD 5,000. According to the Syrian embassy in Washington DC in 1990, such exemptions are allowed only if the person concerned has lived abroad for more than ten years and has reached the age of 35. [2] [3]

Exemption is thought to be permitted in the case of people who left Syria before reaching the age of 12 and had lived abroad for more than 15 years, and in the case of people with Syrian nationality who were born abroad and remained abroad until they were 18. In such cases exemption may be granted on payment of USD 1,000. [3]

All Jews are exempt from military service. [2] [9]

Note: This description of postponement and exemption regulations dates from 1990. In that year the government was reportedly reviewing these regulations, but is not known to what extent postponement and exemption regulations have changed since then.

recruitment

All young men must register for medical examination at their local conscription office at the age of 18. [2]

2 Conscientious objection

The right to conscientious objection is not legally recognised and there are no provisions for substitute service. [2] [4]

The National Service Act apparantly provides for some kind of substitute service. According to the Syrian government in 1985: "Under the National Service Act, military service can be waived, postponed or replaced by an alternative service in certain cases. These cases must be provided by law in order to make allowance for the special circumstances and needs of citizens, particularly those pertaining to religion, health and social position." [3]

But provisions for substitute service have never been introduced. The Syrian authorities stated in 1980 that they would not recognize the right to conscientious objection as long as Syria remained threatened by Israel. [8]

The government has stated several times that there have been no known cases of conscientious objection in Syria. [8] [13]

3 Draft evasion and desertion

penalties

Draft evasion and desertion are punishable under the 1950 Military Penal Code, as amended in 1973. [7]

Under art. 68 failure to report for military service is punishable by one to six months' imprisonment in peacetime, and a month to five years' imprisonment in wartime. [6]

Quitting the country without leaving behind an address, hence evading call-up is punishable by three months' to two years' imprisonment plus fines. [6]

Under art. 101 desertion is punishable by five years' imprisonment; or by five to ten years' if the deserter has left the country; by fifteen years' if the deserter has taken military material with him or if the desertion occurs in wartime or during combat or if the individual deserted previously. The length of imprisonment depends on the deserter's rank and the circumstances under which the desertion has taken place. [7]

Under art. 102 desertion in face of the enemy is punishable by life imprisonment. [6]

Execution is allowed under art. 102 (deserting to enemy ranks) and art. 105 (deserting in the face of the enemy during wartime after conspiring to do so). [6]

practice

The Syrian authorities have contrived several means of tracking down draft evaders.

After registering for military service young men receive a document containing full details about their service, including whether they are entitled to postponement. They must have this document with them at all times, so that the authorities can at any time check their details. [2]

When an 18-year-old does not register with the conscription office, or does not register in time, he is regarded as a draft evader and thus is liable to arrest by the military police and the security forces. [2]

Students who have not yet performed their military service must get special permission if they want to go abroad. [2]

Syrians who have been abroad are routinely interrogated by the authorities if they return to Syria. Border control is known to be strict, especially at airports. [2]

Syrian citizens who live abroad and have not yet performed their military service, are routinely interrogated at the airport when going back to Syria. They may be sentenced and ordered to perform their military service. [5]

In the 80s death sentences were passed on deserters to the enemy, but there are no known cases of executions in recent years. [1] [2]

6 Annual statistics

The armed forces comprise 320,000 troops, which is about 2.09 percent of the population. [11]

Every year about 152,600 young men reach conscription age. There are 250,000 conscripts in the armed forces. [11]

Sources

[1] Amnesty International 1991. Conscientious objection to military service. AI, London. [2] Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs 1991. Ambtsbericht, 's-Gravenhage, 8 July 1991. [3] DIRB, 28 November 1990. [4] UN Commission on Human Rights, 1997. The question of conscientious objection to military service, report of the Secretary-General prepared pursuant to Commission resolution 1995/83. United Nations, Geneva. [5] Amnesty International (German Section), 29 March 1990. Letter to Verwaltungsgericht Karslruhe. AI, Bonn. [6] Amnesty International (Dutch Section), 5 February 1990. Letter to Mr. B.G. van Haren. AI, Amsterdam. [7] Amnesty International (German Section), 13 June 1989. Letter to Innenministerium des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen. AI, Bonn. [8] UN Commission on Human Rights 1980. Report by the Secretary-General. United Nations, Geneva. [9] 'You can jail the resister but not the resistance', Peace News, March 1991. Peace News, London. [10] US Library of Congress 1987. Syria - a country study. Area Handbooks, State Department, Washington DC. [11] Institute for Strategic Studies 1997. Military Balance 1997/98. ISS, London. [12] Institute for Strategic Studies 1996. Military Balance 1996/97. ISS, London. [13] Eide, A. C. Mubanga-Chipoya 1983. Conscientious objection to military service, report prepared in pursuance of resolutions 14 and 1982/30 of the Sub-Commission of Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities. United Nations, Geneva.

Recent stories on conscientious objection: Syria

01 Nov 2019

Los objetores de conciencia exiliados de Turquía hicieron un llamado para rechazar la guerra en el norte de Siria: “¡Objeta! ¡Resiste! ¡No seas un soldado!"

09 Jun 2016

Previamente informamos en CO Update que el reclutamiento había comenzado en Rojava, una región de facto kurda autónoma de Siria. Ahora, el gobierno del distrito Cizre ha reconocido el derecho a la objeción de conciencia. La Ley del Servicio Militar Obligatorio en Rojava recluta en la actualidad personas de entre 21 y 30 años.

Fuentes: Vicdani Ret, Rojava’nın Cizire Kantonu çıkardığı yeni yasa ile vicdani ret hakkını tanıdı, 19 de abril de 2016; Rojava Reporter, Right of Conscientious Objection Recognized In Rojava, 20 de abril de 2016.

07 Dic 2015

En Siria,no hay a dónde huir de la conscripción. Dependiendo de dónde estén, los hombres jóvenes, y en algunos casos también las mujeres, son reclutados para combatir en la guerra civil.

El ejército de Bashar Assad se ha reducido de 350.000 a unos 200.000 efectivos desde que empezó el conflicto hace cuatro años. Se cree que más de 80.000 soldados y milicianos pro-gubernamentales han sido asesinados. El miedo a ser reclutados para ser carne de cañón, para matar y ser matados es una de las razones que está llevando a la gente a huir del país y buscar refugio. Según el observatorio sirio de los Derechos Humanos hay al menos 70.000 hombres que han esquivado la conscripción militar obligatoria.

11 Jul 2015

En abril, varios sirios kurdos que se negaban a hacer el “servicio militar obligatorio” fueron arrestados por las fuerzas de seguridad kurdas y llevados a un centro de detención antes de ser llevados a los 'frentes de combate'. Docenas de hombres jóvenes fueron detenidos en los controles de la ciudad de Sere Kaniye, en la provincia de Hasakah. La controvertida ley de conscripción se aprobó a mediados de 2014, y obliga a los ciudadanos de entre 18 y 30 años a unirse al Servició de Defensa Popular (YPG) durante seis meses.

Fuentes

09 Ago 2005

CCPR/CO/84/SYR
9 de agosto de 2005

(...)

11. El Comité toma nota de la información facilitada por la delegación de que Siria no reconoce el derecho a la objeción de conciencia respecto del servicio militar pero permite a algunos de quienes no deseen cumplir dicho servicio el pago de cierta suma para eximirse de él (art. 18).

El Estado Parte debe respetar el derecho a la objeción de conciencia con respecto al servicio militar y establecer, si lo desea, un servicio civil alternativo que no tenga carácter punitivo.

(...)