Informe sobre el país: France

Ultima revisión: 23 Oct 2008
23 Oct 2008

Issues



  • France does not recognise the right to conscientious objection for professional
    soldiers.


Military recruitment


Conscription

In 2001, France ended conscription in peacetime1. This was based on a change of the National Service Law in 19972. However, conscription is in fact only suspended, and can be reintroduced in times of war or an emergency. The relevant articles of the National Service Law have been changed in a way that presently they are suspended for persons born after 31 December 19783. They can easily be reinstated.


Conscription has been replaced by a compulsory one day "rendez-vous citoyen" (national day of preparation for national defence). All young men and women between the ages of 16 and 18 are obliged to participate in this day. On this day, people have civil status and do not have to bear arms or wear a uniform or be subjected to military discipline. Participation in the
"rendez-vous citoyen" is a necessary condition for taking part in final examinations or obtaining a diploma in state universities4.


Professional soldiers

The service of professional soldiers is regulated in the Defence Law (Code de la Defense)5


Conscientious objection


Conscientious objection for conscripts

The right to conscientious objection was legally recognised in 1963. French CO legislation was restrictive and did not comply with international standards on conscientious objection. CO applications could only be made before starting military service and not by serving conscripts, and substitute service lasted twice as long as military service. In 1999, the United Nations Human Rights Committee came to the conclusion that this length of substitute service constituted a violation of article 26 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights6.


Compared to other European countries, the number of COs in France has always remained relatively low. During the 1990s approx. 6,000 CO applications were made per year, which was only 3 per cent of all eligible conscripts.


With the suspension of conscription in 2001, the 1983 Law on Conscientious Objection (Law 83/605) became applicable only to men born before 31 December 1978. Consequently, young men who are born after 1979 have no possibility of claiming the right to conscientious objection.


Conscientious objection for professional soldiers

The right to conscientious objectors is not recognised for professional soldiers.


Draft evasion and desertion


No information on practice is available.

Notes


1France
salutes end of military service, BBC News Service, 29 November 2001,
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/1682777.stm,
accessed 2 May 2008






4The
Right to Conscientious Objection in Europe, Quaker Council for
European Affairs, 2005, http://wri-irg.org/co/rtba/france.htm,
accessed 2 May 2008





6Communication
Nº 666/1995 : France. 09/11/99. CCPR/C/67/D/666/1995.
(Jurisprudence),
http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/0c8f045e5407717e8025686900523…,
accessed 9 October 2008


Recent stories on conscientious objection: France

18 Dic 2019

Del 1 de noviembre al 3 de noviembre de 2019, un grupo de activistas de Francia, Italia, España y Suiza se reunieron para debatir sobre el militarismo en su vida política, social y cotidiana. La objeción de conciencia, entre y en relación con otros temas, fue central durante este campamento antimilitarista en París.

10 Oct 2019

En junio de este año, se lanzó un nuevo programa nacional de servicio cívico dirigido a los jóvenes, 20 años después de eliminado el reclutamiento para hombres en el país.

15 Feb 2018

Durante muchos años, parecía que el servicio militar obligatorio estaba a punto de desaparecer. Pero en los últimos cinco años, la imagen ha cambiado: Noruega extendió el servicio militar obligatorio para las mujeres; Suecia ha reintroducido el servicio militar obligatorio para todos; Ucrania, Georgia, Lituania y Kuwait han reintroducido el servicio militar obligatorio para hombres después de breves hiatos; Qatar y los Emiratos Árabes Unidos han introducido el servicio militar obligatorio por primera vez. Vemos por qué los gobiernos recurren a la compulsión para llenar sus ejércitos, y lo que esto significa para los movimientos pacifistas.

20 Feb 2009

Andreas Speck es insumiso y activista histórico del movimiento pacifista y antinuclear en Alemania. En la actualidad es coordinador de la Internacional de Resistentes a la Guerra (una red pacifista mundial de grupos y personas fundada en 1921) para los programas de apoyo a la objeción de conciencia en países como Colombia, Israel, Grecia, Chile y Corea del Sur.

09 Nov 1999

Comunicación Nº 666/1995 : France. 09/11/99.
CCPR/C/67/D/666/1995. (Jurisprudence)
Convention Abbreviation: CCPR
Comité de Derechos Humanos
67º período de sesiones
18 de octubre - 5 de noviembre de 1999
ANEXO*

Dictamen del Comité de Derechos Humanos emitido a tenor del
párrafo 4 del artículo 5 del Protocolo Facultativo
del Pacto Internacional de Derechos Civiles y Políticos
- 67º período de sesiones -

Comunicación Nº 666/1995**
Presentada por: Frédéric Foin (representado por François Roux, que ejerce la abogacía en Francia)
Presunta víctima: El autor