War Profiteers https://wri-irg.org/en en Sex, power & play at Europe’s largest arms fair https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2024/sex-power-play-europes-largest-arms-fair <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--42714.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="42714" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-image--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image.html.twig * field--expert--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-image.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--node--field-image.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <picture> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_desktop/public/2024-06/picture-1.jpg?itok=KuqCJuz2 1x" media="screen and (min-width: 992px)" type="image/jpeg"/> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2024-06/picture-1.jpg?itok=JR_c4z1S 1x" type="image/jpeg"/> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2024-06/picture-1.jpg?itok=JR_c4z1S" alt="The Thales and Elbit System stands at DSEI 2023" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> </picture> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <div class="caption"></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 03 Jun 2024</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--dynamic-twig-field:node-author-name-twig---custom.html.twig * field--default--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--default--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-dynamic-twig-fieldnode-author-name-twig field--type-ds field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Author(s)</div> <div class="field--item"> <span>Nico Edwards</span> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><ul><li><strong>Disclaimer: none of the people displayed in the photos are present in the text and should not be thought of as complicit with the sexual harassment discussed in the text.</strong></li> <li><strong>This piece was originally published on The Disorder of Things, available here: <a href="https://thedisorderofthings.com/2024/03/08/sex-power-play-at-europes-largest-arms-fair/">https://thedisorderofthings.com/2024/03/08/sex-power-play-at-europes-largest-arms-fair/</a></strong></li> </ul><p>Global headlines are once again seized by the outbreak of armed conflict, detailing indescribable suffering and destruction. War, it feels, is everywhere and always. To some, this means business. Many of the <a href="https://www.calcalistech.com/ctechnews/article/sypn3yewp">facilitators and profiteers</a> of armed conflict globally attended the <a href="https://www.dsei.co.uk/agenda">Defence and Security Equipment International (DSEI)</a> in London, September 2023.</p> <p>What follows is a personal story, but what it tells us about enduring systems of power and harm goes far beyond my person. That weathered feminist truth that the personal is always also political rings true still. What I experienced in the world of “defence men” – the global war elite – attending DSEI as a white woman, was highly demonstrative of the social, political and economic forces that enable and perpetuate armed violence. The personal behaviours of militarised business masculinities hold clues as to why decisionmakers keep hurtling toward global war at the expense of both people and the planet.</p> <h2 class="wp-block-heading"><strong>Setting the scene: a playground for phallic force </strong></h2> <p>Happening in London biannually, DSEI is <a href="https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/defence-minister-james-cartlidge-formally-opens-dsei-2023">one of the world’s biggest and most important</a> arms fairs. I went there to research military sectors’ pivot toward <a href="https://jacobin.com/2023/06/arms-dealers-environment-social-responsibility-investments-green-warfare-security">environmental sustainability</a> and how to <a href="https://inkstickmedia.com/selling-war-amid-climate-change/">“green” warfare</a> – a key emerging feature especially of European and North American propaganda. The event oozed of hubris. Rob, an American war simulations expert and my main interlocutor, confirmed he’d never seen such a galore of impressive weapons tech exhibitions. Indeed, several arms company reps told me affirmingly: <a href="https://www.declassifieduk.org/britain-always-seeks-a-profit-in-wars/">business is booming</a>. Spread across 100,000 sqm. Rob and I were among almost 40,000 participants from all over the world. Including <a href="https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/dsei-2023-countries-territories-and-organisations-invited-by-uk-defence-and-security-exports-to-attend">the usual array</a> of repressive, human rights abusing regimes or states involved in active warfare.</p> <p>You don’t have to be a polemicist to catch how DSEI is but one big bonding ritual for predominantly white <em>men in suits </em>enacting their obsession with force. DSEI puts the global war elite’s drastic detachment from the real-world needs of people and planet into sharp relief. Inside the fair, “defence” and “security” materialise as glaring euphemisms for military-industrial might and titillating experiments in how to model the future of warfare in line with Hollywood fantasies of high-tech battles between good and evil. Rather than signal a dedication – however deceptive – to keeping people safe, the event felt like an inferno of <em>white men in suits </em>blatantly driven by that boyish excitement for tech, kinetics, heroism, beauty, sex and money. And yet, there are enough of these men in power across the globe to make it seem as if they are the realists responding to real threats.</p> <p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'filter_caption' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/filter/templates/filter-caption.html.twig' --> <figure role="group" class="align-center"><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'entity_embed_container' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --><div alt="An advertisement with the words &quot;pro-tech-ing people and planet&quot;. The image shows a snowy landscape with a military vehicle." data-embed-button="image_embed" data-entity-embed-display="image:responsive_image" data-entity-embed-display-settings="{&quot;responsive_image_style&quot;:&quot;body_inline_full&quot;,&quot;image_link&quot;:&quot;&quot;}" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="52d29963-1a6b-48ba-8f68-3474b3633321" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/picture-2.png?itok=ZGOpU0j6 1x" src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/picture-2.png?itok=ZGOpU0j6" alt="An advertisement with the words &quot;pro-tech-ing people and planet&quot;. The image shows a snowy landscape with a military vehicle." typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /><!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> <figcaption>Norwegian Kongsberg, marketing sustainability, DSEI 2023. Credit: Nico Edwards</figcaption></figure><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/filter/templates/filter-caption.html.twig' --></p> <h2 class="wp-block-heading"><strong>Sex in The marketplace of war</strong></h2> <p>In 1985 <a href="https://www.jstor.org/stable/3174209">Carol Cohn shared her canonical experience</a> of the construction of exactly that chimerical “hard-nosed realism” among white male American “defence intellectuals”, with its dangerous claim to “cool-headed objectivity” and “hyper-rationality.” Besides the rationalisation of war as a techno-strategic calculation, Cohn was struck by the men’s explicitly sexualised relationship to nuclear weapons and warmaking. The creation of the atomic bomb and the doctrines around its use, Cohn found, were rife with phallic imagery, competitive male sexuality and the promise of sexual domination.</p> <p>Four decades later I wrote in my DSEI diary that “8 out of 10 of my encounters with different military sector actors at the fair have been outright sexualising. Even worse, I am constantly forced to participate in my own sexualisation – to allow it to continue, to play along with it.” I had never properly read Cohn’s piece, which became so <a href="https://www.duckofminerva.com/2023/08/patriarchy-and-the-cult-of-coercion-pale-male-and-stale-will-make-deterrence-fail.html">foundational to feminist approaches</a> to war and global politics. Yet reading her after my visit to DSEI I realised that not much had changed in the “rational” world where war is theorised, bought and sold.</p> <p>I headed to DSEI having abandoned gender as an analytic, attempting in the past years to break away from the gender straightjacket as a woman security scholar. I emerged with a rabid need to dust off the generations of feminist writers who had already experienced just that: toxic masculinity as the enduring bedrock of war and militarism.</p> <p>Rob is a useful entrance into my experience of attending the fair as a woman. We wouldn’t have met if he and his arms tech friends at the designated DSEI pub had not deemed me fuckable and thus worth approaching to invite to their table. They never used that exact word, but to me it’s the term that comes closest to their myriad ways of alluding to sexual intercourse, sometimes gentle and indirect, sometimes rough and definitive.</p> <p>Rob introduced me to everyone he thought could help me with my research, and invited me to socialise on and off the event grounds. While becoming my “friend”, he felt the persistent need to explicitly mark me as a sexual object: constantly commenting on my being a young woman added with different adjectives for attractive added with the key details of being blonde, blue eyed and Swedish. A trope that in his world, and he assumed for all other men at DSEI too, was particularly enticing.</p> <p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'filter_caption' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/filter/templates/filter-caption.html.twig' --> <figure role="group" class="align-center"><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'entity_embed_container' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --><div alt="A large fighter jet on display." data-embed-button="image_embed" data-entity-embed-display="image:responsive_image" data-entity-embed-display-settings="{&quot;responsive_image_style&quot;:&quot;body_inline_full&quot;,&quot;image_link&quot;:&quot;&quot;}" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="d11f929e-0399-48e2-b168-7d979bdca59f" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/picture-3.jpg?itok=0HYdmosd 1x" src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/picture-3.jpg?itok=0HYdmosd" alt="A large fighter jet on display." typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /><!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> <figcaption>BAE Systems Eurofighter Typhoon, DSEI 2023. Credit: Nico Edwards</figcaption></figure><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/filter/templates/filter-caption.html.twig' --></p> <p>Rob and others with him were utterly unable (or perhaps unwilling) to bond with me solely on the grounds of social or intellectual chemistry. That is, beyond the possibilities of sexual pursuit. Be it his own pursuit, or through offering me up to other men as potential game. My collective sexualisation became a bonding mechanism for a majority of the men I met, even as a conversation topic among these men <em>about </em>but <em>above </em>me, while I was sitting at the same table or standing by the same stall. Like the Australian pavilion reps bonding with the Turkish ammunition producers over my (Swedish blonde) appearance. Or a British Army Vet making plain to an Australian General that he’s well above the legal sex age (“well in my rights to consent to sex, if you know what I mean”), so much so that he could be my dad.</p> <p>I remember going to the fair assuming that my unknowing-girl look, a young woman looking lost and not talking the lingo, would discredit me. That it’d make the <em>white men in suits </em>not bother taking the time to talk. I left having learnt the opposite. Instead, my allure as a woman out-of-place, offering that potential of sex yet not being reducible to “<a href="https://twitter.com/21aar_show/status/1699062388102988208/photo/1">a booth babe</a>” – the only other mainstreamed role for women to take at arms fairs, who “you can’t have a proper conversation with” (Rob’s words) – made me at once interesting and non-threatening to engage. Instead, I became someone to be confined in, to banter and boast with, letting off steam about the ridiculousness <em>and</em> grandeur of their trade. Had these men not felt drawn to sexualising me and had I not played along, I wouldn’t have gathered half of the information I got – even regarding sustainability.</p> <p>Attending DSEI in a female body I became a razor-sharp crystallisation of just how palpable a socialising force that sexism remains in 2023, and how it’s reached a climax in the world of war. I became a literal bodily inscription of unhinged entitlement among white men belonging to the 1%. The following are actual quotes and examples of the things said to me by some of the men I met during DSEI. Men that see it fit to “compliment” you as DSEI’s equivalent to a booth babe. Dehumanise you through calling you a “render”, a “simulation” of “the ultimate woman.” Men that stop you on the exhibition floor for a personal chat only to tell you that you’re a vessel for the “reproduction” of their “virus”. Men that tell you to stop talking as your Swedish accent will make them orgasm – “or wait, please don’t stop, I just won’t hear you properly, and when my eyes roll back into my head you’ll know what’s going on.” That tell you to keep eating the slices of pizza bianca with cum-looking cheese “just like that” as it demonstrates how you’d take a large-size penis in your mouth “and you have to swallow it.” Men that equate you with a candy, something edible, something to be acquired and tasted. That relegate you to the status of a babe albeit with a brain. What do you take away from a world that reduces you to the state of “fuckable Swedish blonde” in more manners of speaking than you can recount?</p> <p>On the last day I described my experiences to Rob, aghast at how grown men were not embarrassed behaving like lads-on-tour among their high-level sector peers. Hearing this, Rob and his drone engineer friend laughed and rolled their eyes, confirming the opposite: these men <em>want</em> to be seen “chatting up the blonde.” In this world that doesn’t take away points, it gives you social capital, especially the higher up the hierarchy ladder you get. The men watching “were probably jealous.”</p> <p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'filter_caption' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/filter/templates/filter-caption.html.twig' --> <figure role="group" class="align-center"><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'entity_embed_container' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --><div alt="A large podium exhibiting fire arms. There are a large number of business people miling around." data-embed-button="image_embed" data-entity-embed-display="image:responsive_image" data-entity-embed-display-settings="{&quot;responsive_image_style&quot;:&quot;body_inline_full&quot;,&quot;image_link&quot;:&quot;&quot;}" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="393316c1-080f-49cf-8cba-da9a6266dbfa" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/picture-4.png?itok=iIkueKpM 1x" src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/picture-4.png?itok=iIkueKpM" alt="A large podium exhibiting fire arms. There are a large number of business people miling around." typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /><!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> <figcaption>Sig Sauer firearms stand, DSEI 2023. Credit: Nico Edwards</figcaption></figure><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/filter/templates/filter-caption.html.twig' --></p> <h3 class="wp-block-heading"><strong>War, weapons, money, women    </strong></h3> <p>My time at DSEI made one thing glaringly obvious: how these men’s entitlement operate along a spectrum of power and privilege that range from money, weapons, credibility and capital, to women, girls and the feminised body as a vessel for their pleasure and status. Their self-proclaimed right to my body is the same as their entitlement to trading in the global distribution of life and death.</p> <p>The chauvinism and power plays that rage inside the world of defence men expose women and other feminised identities (womxn) to <a href="https://x.com/xivzz_/status/1719808534786003421?s=46&amp;t=-AKayC-_kxtAWLtTRSRBSQ">remarkable forms of sexualised and other violence</a> in peace and war-time. These norms pin womxn to the enduring <a href="https://hothouselitjournal.com/2021/11/09/the-feminine-continuum-from-madonna-to-whore-and-back-again/">categories</a> of virgins and madonnas, wives and mothers, crones and whores. Or, as per my DSEI experience, desirable vs. not desirable.</p> <p>As a white Scandinavian woman, I can’t speak to what forms of racism a woman of colour would experience in this space. Or what forms of discrimination would make themselves known to gender nonconforming or disabled persons in my position. But from the raging sexualisation, infantilisation and exotification that met me as a white, blonde and blue eyed, able-bodied Swedish cis-woman, I have a hunch of what systems of denigration, desire and harm that would crystallise in the encounter with womxn not fitting with this normative category. After all, we learnt long ago that the principles of valuation and entitlement that informs those tropes around the fuckable Swedish blonde belong to the same grid of power, exploitation and exclusion that feeds racism, ableism, homo- and transphobia.</p> <p>But the violent consequences of this power grid, and the norms it sustains, are far from only affecting womxn. They are also the norms that force men into the inhumane roles of sexual predators, soldiers and martyrs. That mould men into dutiful patriots. That demand that they relinquish their right to a life free from the use and reception of violence – sacrificing their sense of humanity, their vulnerability and emotional sensitivity, and their access to intimacy beyond sexual domination.</p> <p>Yet, the fact remains that most of the men attending DSEI are not those suffering the real-life consequences of their trade nor their toxic masculinity. While their entitlements wreak havoc across the world, the architects and entrepreneurs of global war instead operate in an alternative reality. A reality upholding those “rational systems” that Cohn identified in the 80s, which still dictate politics for much of the world despite the glaringly obvious truth: that there’s <em>nothing rational</em> about war or society’s disproportionate investment in it. An alternative reality, where, to the profiteers of death, war is but a videogame, weapons but toys, and women but prey.</p> <h3 class="wp-block-heading"><strong>Welcome to hell   </strong></h3> <p>Less than a month after my visit to the fair, this surreal subworld demonstrated the indescribable suffering generated by its application to real life: to real people, real dreams, real ecologies. Ongoing horrors in Gaza and Ukraine are far from the first epicentres in which the desires of the global war elite are culminating in civilian flesh and blood, soils and aquifers. They will not be the last.</p> <p><strong>DSEI Diary- Saturday Sep 16</strong></p> <p>11:44</p> <p>… I left DSEI with one realisation weighing heavier than the others, etched into my skin despite my mind’s fervent attempts to stop living in the body that DSEI confined me to and get back to intellectualising, to <em>doing my research</em> – that the people profiting from plunging this planet toward apocalypse still live in an alternate playground reality of sex and power, enacting their fantasies of phallic force, heroism and wealth upon the world with full impunity while homosocialising over their proximity to violence and money, drinking vodka from glass-skulls (no-joke) invigorated by the message flashing all around them in an eerily truthful reference to the reality of their trade: WELCOME TO HELL.</p> <p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'filter_caption' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/filter/templates/filter-caption.html.twig' --> <figure role="group" class="align-center"><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'entity_embed_container' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --><div alt="A bowl of sweets, in black wrappers, with the words &quot;welcome to hell&quot; printed on each one." data-embed-button="image_embed" data-entity-embed-display="image:responsive_image" data-entity-embed-display-settings="{&quot;responsive_image_style&quot;:&quot;body_inline_full&quot;,&quot;image_link&quot;:&quot;&quot;}" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="7c5c2666-688c-4767-934b-137c3f7e5a87" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/picture-5.jpg?itok=BD0P8uwk 1x" src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/picture-5.jpg?itok=BD0P8uwk" alt="A bowl of sweets, in black wrappers, with the words &quot;welcome to hell&quot; printed on each one." typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /><!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> <figcaption>Bofors Test Center, offering vodka and candies with the text Welcome to Hell, DSEI 2023. Credit: Nico Edwards</figcaption></figure><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/filter/templates/filter-caption.html.twig' --></p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-author-information--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--field-author-information.html.twig * field--default--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--field-author-information.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--node--field-author-information.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-author-information.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-author-information field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Author information</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--authors-and-bios--bio-only.html.twig * paragraph--authors-and-bios.html.twig * paragraph--bio-only.html.twig x paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/paragraphs/paragraph.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--authors-and-bios paragraph--id--_44 paragraph--view-mode--bio-only"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-bio--bio-only.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-bio--authors-and-bios.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-bio.html.twig * field--paragraph--authors-and-bios.html.twig * field--field-bio.html.twig * field--text-long.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-bio field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Nico is a PhD Candidate in International Relations at the University of Sussex (UK), researching militarism and ecological injustice. She is also an Advisor to <a href="https://www.sgr.org.uk/">Scientists for Global Responsibility</a>, Associated Researcher with the World Peace Foundation and author of the new report <em><a href="https://sites.tufts.edu/wpf/debate-on-arms-trade/">Resisting Green Militarism: Building Movements for Peace and Eco-Social Justice</a>.</em></p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/paragraphs/paragraph.html.twig' --> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programme/war-profiteers" hreflang="en">War Profiteers</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/the-broken-rifle-blog" hreflang="en">The Broken Rifle</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/465" hreflang="en">Front Page</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/92" hreflang="en">United Kingdom</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=42714&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="xfp9mTPBUBv0Bfa1cAlvHXH55wkSJBMfVIXIRdDm4FM"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Mon, 03 Jun 2024 11:53:00 +0000 Andrew 42714 at https://wri-irg.org https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2024/sex-power-play-europes-largest-arms-fair#comments Under the Radar: Twenty years of EU military missions https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2024/under-radar-twenty-years-eu-military-missions <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--42708.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="42708" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-image--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image.html.twig * field--expert--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-image.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--node--field-image.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <picture> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_desktop/public/2024-05/9611089463_dc15cdb9ee_k.jpg?itok=LNOumhQC 1x" media="screen and (min-width: 992px)" type="image/jpeg"/> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2024-05/9611089463_dc15cdb9ee_k.jpg?itok=i4kx4n80 1x" type="image/jpeg"/> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2024-05/9611089463_dc15cdb9ee_k.jpg?itok=i4kx4n80" alt="A military general wearing a blue cap greets several soldiers from Somalia. They are all wearing green camouflage" title="General Aherne greets Somali Soldiers as they return from a training mission in Uganda" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> </picture> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <div class="caption">General Aherne greets Somali Soldiers as they return from a training mission in Uganda</div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 20 May 2024</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--dynamic-twig-field:node-author-name-twig---custom.html.twig * field--default--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--default--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-dynamic-twig-fieldnode-author-name-twig field--type-ds field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Author(s)</div> <div class="field--item"> <span>Josephine Valeske and Niamh Ní Bhriain, Transnational Institute</span> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Among the issues that may sway voters during the upcoming EU parliamentary elections is the Union’s public embrace of war politics, which has been at the forefront of events in Brussels during the previous five-year cycle. Far from public view, however, the EU has, in fact, been driving a war agenda for decades. For the past twenty years, the EU has been deploying military-mandated missions overseas that have gone virtually under the radar and generally evaded public scrutiny. The Transnational Institute’s new report ‘<a href="https://www.tni.org/en/publication/under-the-radar">Under the Radar: Twenty years of EU military missions</a>’ sheds light on these missions.</p> <p>In 2003, the EU deployed its first-ever foreign mission to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. In the 20 years since then it has undertaken more than 40 operations across Europe, Africa and Asia with 24 currently active, 13 of which are civilian, 10 of which are military, as well as one hybrid mission. The number of active military missions has doubled from five to ten since 2018. Similarly, the common costs (roughly 10-15% of the total costs) of these missions have almost doubled since 2019 and stand at €150 million for 2024.</p> <p>While the official rhetoric suggests that the military missions are aimed at increasing stability in the respective countries, in reality the EU is driven by its own interests and the development of these missions and their deployment exemplifies a colonial logic, focused on controlling access to crucial raw materials, important trade routes, securing profits for the military-industrial complex, and the EU projecting itself as a ‘hard power’.</p> <p>While the EU’s overseas missions are relatively small in terms of personnel and presented as low-level interventions, their impact over the previous 20 years has, at best, had no impact in resolving conflict, or served to exacerbate it. Our research shows that the EU chooses to prioritise short-term goals over addressing the root causes of violent conflicts. Furthermore, there is no standard methodology to assess the effectiveness of EU missions, and evaluations as well as the decision-making process to launch new missions appear to take place in an ad hoc manner. Even the EU admits that it has achieved few of its stated aims.</p> <p>The Sahelian region, where the EU has deployed seven military missions over the last two decades, is a case in point. The competition for access to resources and raw materials seems to be the key driving force behind the EU’s focus on the Sahel region. Since the EU began deploying such missions, coups d’état have become commonplace, not only in the countries where there are EU missions but also in neighbouring states. Clearly, the EU presence cannot be held solely responsible for these events but it certainly raises questions about its stated aim of preventing conflict and strengthening security, especially since some of these missions provided financial support to the armed forces involved in the coups. In 2020, the Malian national security forces, which received training and finance from the EU, were responsible for the killing of hundreds of civilians. The military missions in both Mali and the Central African Republic (CAR) have been partially suspended since the end of 2021 – but not because of the well-documented human rights violations perpetrated by state forces, but because it was discovered that the Russian state-sponsored private military Wagner Group was highly active in both countries, raising concerns that soldiers trained by the EU might join the militia and cause reputational damage. The partnership mission in Niger ended less than a year after it started because the new military government ordered European, French and US forces to leave the country.</p> <p>The EU’s most recent mission in the Red Sea, launched in response to Houthi disruption of shipping lanes to bring pressure to bear on Israel’s assault on Gaza, is a further example of the EU protecting its own interests while projecting itself as a reliable actor in the Western axis of power. It is noteworthy that the only concrete action the EU has taken in relation to Gaza was the deployment of this mission, which has done nothing to address Israel’s genocidal war on the Palestinian people.</p> <p>Despite its poor track record in bringing about peace and stability, the EU has forged ahead with deploying its missions, eager to defend its economic interests and present itself as a relevant actor on the global stage. The EU’s two Somali-focused missions operating on land and patrolling coastal waters have indeed contributed to exacerbating the problems that they were mandated to alleviate, and culminated in driving people from their livelihood of small-scale fishing directly into the hands of non-state armed groups. This is far from an exceptional case: While ‘terrorism’ is often cited as the justification for US and EU military presence in the Sahel, evidence suggests a reverse causality – military interference provokes non-state armed groups, which in turn is used to justify further militarisation.</p> <p>The problems that the EU claims to be addressing with its missions – instability, insecurity and violence – are often deeply rooted in the consequences that stem from European countries’ colonisation of Africa. It is often unresolved territorial questions related to borders drawn up by the colonial powers, or power structures that prevailed following the liberation struggles of the 1960s, land and ocean grabs to control natural resources, as well as local economic consequences – such as extreme poverty – of a deeply unequal global trade system that drive insecurity. The EU will never be able to resolve problems on the African continent, or anywhere in the world, by deploying military missions. Claiming that it can do so is a further example of the colonialist mindset which often dominates the corridors of power in Brussels. Were the EU to be genuinely concerned about crisis situations in other countries and eager to deploy peacekeeping troops, it could use its leverage and do so within the UN system rather than acting outside, or on the margins of multilateralism. Moreover, it could address the deeply uneven power dynamics between the EU and the Global South that serve to protect European interests and lead to the impoverishment of these countries.</p> <p>The profiteers who reap the financial benefits of these missions include the arms companies, which benefit from the contracts for the purchase of weapons, as well as the border and military-industrial complex more broadly that stand to gain much from insecurity and war. Moreover, oil and gas companies, as well as mineral investors and large-scale fishing companies, also saw the opportunity to secure and increase their profits.</p> <p>The logical conclusion after 20 years of such missions is that the EU should finally bring these to a close, and focus its efforts on diplomacy, strengthening democracy, and working within the existing multilateral structures.</p> <p><strong>The full report can be found here: <a href="https://www.tni.org/en/publication/under-the-radar">https://www.tni.org/en/publication/under-the-radar</a></strong></p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-author-information--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--field-author-information.html.twig * field--default--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--field-author-information.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--node--field-author-information.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-author-information.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-author-information field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Author information</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--authors-and-bios--bio-only.html.twig * paragraph--authors-and-bios.html.twig * paragraph--bio-only.html.twig x paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/paragraphs/paragraph.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--authors-and-bios paragraph--id--_42 paragraph--view-mode--bio-only"> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/paragraphs/paragraph.html.twig' --> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/465" hreflang="en">Front Page</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/the-broken-rifle-blog" hreflang="en">The Broken Rifle</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programme/war-profiteers" hreflang="en">War Profiteers</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/233" hreflang="en">Central African Republic</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/182" hreflang="en">Mali</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=42708&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="USp5rqES5n_3YpRn4dySEcVli-1G7RwFreF6ya8YDSc"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Mon, 20 May 2024 10:39:00 +0000 Andrew 42708 at https://wri-irg.org https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2024/under-radar-twenty-years-eu-military-missions#comments War profiteer profile: Norinco https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2024/war-profiteer-profile-norinco <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--42701.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="42701" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-image--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image.html.twig * field--expert--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-image.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--node--field-image.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <picture> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_desktop/public/2024-04/norinco_vt-4_at_idex_2017.jpg?itok=GtpA46bZ 1x" media="screen and (min-width: 992px)" type="image/jpeg"/> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2024-04/norinco_vt-4_at_idex_2017.jpg?itok=lC7MaB5s 1x" type="image/jpeg"/> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2024-04/norinco_vt-4_at_idex_2017.jpg?itok=lC7MaB5s" alt="A VT-4 battle tank on display at an arms fair. " title="A VT-4 battle tank on display at the IDEX arms fair. Photo: Mztourist, CC4.0" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> </picture> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <div class="caption">A VT-4 battle tank on display at the IDEX arms fair. Photo: Mztourist, CC4.0</div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 22 Apr 2024</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Norinco (formerly the China North Industries Corporation) is China’s biggest arms company, and ranks 7th on SIPRI’s list of the world’s 100 biggest arms companies. Found in 1980, Norinco manufactures a wide range of military hardware for the Chinese military, and for other armies and police forces around the world. Norinco is 100% owned by the Chinese state.</p> <p>As an indication of the size of the company, Norinco reported revenue in 2023 of over US$82 billion, and employs 216,300 people. In 2017 it was estimated that 27% of Norinco’s income came from arms sales.</p> <p>Norinco produce a huge range of different weapons and equipment used by military and security forces: rifles, pistols, grenade launchers, rocket launchers, machine guns, mortar systems, tanks, armoured vehicles, and a wide range of weapons and equipment designed for crowd-control and riot policing. As well as manufacturing arms products, Norinco also has interests in resource extraction, construction, chemical engineering, import and export, and opto-electronics. A <a href="https://www.sipri.org/publications/2020/sipri-insights-peace-and-security/estimating-arms-sales-chinese-companies" title="https://www.sipri.org/publications/2020/sipri-insights-peace-and-security/estimating-arms-sales-chinese-companies">research paper</a> produced by SIPRI in 2023 highlighted the fact that the company’s opto-electronics have military applications as well as civilian.</p> <p>Transparency International have <a href="https://ti-defence.org/dci/companies/china-north-industries-group-corporation-norinco/" title="https://ti-defence.org/dci/companies/china-north-industries-group-corporation-norinco/">rated</a> Norinco as “very low” in its assessment of their commitment to transparency.</p> <h1>Exports</h1> <p>Norinco has also focused on the production of battle tanks for export, with the Thai military recently acquiring the VT-4 battle tank manufactured specifically for export. Military equipment designed by Norinco is also manufactured under license around the world: Iraq has recently started to manufacture VN22 armoured vehicles.</p> <p>In 2023 it was reported the company’s products were being u<a href="https://www.reuters.com/world/europe/ukraine-says-it-is-finding-more-chinese-components-russian-weapons-2023-04-14/" title="https://www.reuters.com/world/europe/ukraine-says-it-is-finding-more-chinese-components-russian-weapons-2023-04-14/">sed by the Russian military in Ukraine</a>, including rifles, body armour and drone parts.</p> <h1>Policing equipment</h1> <p>Equipment, vehicles and weapons manufactured by Norinco are used by police forces across the world. For example, there is evidence of extensive use of vehicles manufactured by Norinco in Venezuela, including VN-4 armoured personnel carriers, water cannon, and “murciélagos” – vehicles with large mobile barriers attached, allowing police forces to block and control the movement of crowds.</p> <p>Perhaps unsurprisingly, tear gas manufactured by Norinco has been identified in Hong Kong, where huge volumes of tear gas were used against pro-democracy demonstrators in 2019-2020. Norinco’s NF01 and NF-11 CS tear gas grenades have also been <a href="https://twitter.com/AnalystMick/status/1219575070307364869" title="https://twitter.com/AnalystMick/status/1219575070307364869">used by Iraqi police</a> against protesters.</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-conversation="none"><p dir="ltr" lang="en" xml:lang="en">Chinese grenades seen too: the thrown Norinco NF-11 CS gas grenade and NF01 37mm CS gas grenade, the latter of which can be fired by Norinco NARG 38 launchers (Or maybe even Iranian 38mm TPT launchers). Yet to conclusively ID launchers seen recently, but the former is likely <a href="https://t.co/dL36Wp44lV">pic.twitter.com/dL36Wp44lV</a></p> <p>— Cᴀʟɪʙʀᴇ Oʙsᴄᴜʀᴀ (@CalibreObscura) <a href="https://twitter.com/CalibreObscura/status/1219579549249347589?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">January 21, 2020</a></p></blockquote> <script async="" src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script><p>NARG 38 grenade launchers have also been identified being used by police officers against protesters all over the world. There is evidence of these single-shot weapons being used against protesters in <a href="https://citizenevidence.org/2020/03/05/iraqprotests-under-fire-the-weapons-used-against-demonstrators/" title="https://citizenevidence.org/2020/03/05/iraqprotests-under-fire-the-weapons-used-against-demonstrators/">Iraq</a>, <a href="https://twitter.com/Omega_RF/status/557886476797878273 https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/poverty-matters/2015/jan/20/occupyplayground-police-used-teargas-on-our-children-but-for-now-we-celebrate-the-win" title="https://twitter.com/Omega_RF/status/557886476797878273 https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/poverty-matters/2015/jan/20/occupyplayground-police-used-teargas-on-our-children-but-for-now-we-celebrate-the-win">Kenya</a>, <a href="https://twitter.com/ShepherdClavis/status/1364347675144052736" title="https://twitter.com/ShepherdClavis/status/1364347675144052736">Cambodia</a>, <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mGtMPLzbaxo" title="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mGtMPLzbaxo">India</a>, <a href="https://citizenevidence.org/2020/09/08/police-riot-gear-old-and-new/" title="https://citizenevidence.org/2020/09/08/police-riot-gear-old-and-new/">Guinea</a>, <a href="https://citizenevidence.org/2020/09/08/police-riot-gear-old-and-new/" title="https://citizenevidence.org/2020/09/08/police-riot-gear-old-and-new/">Serbia</a>, <a href="https://twitter.com/RFERL/status/1143205621354893313?s=20&amp;t=-Z9jgSRmdrA7T1huStDvrA and https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/research/2023/10/repression-trade/" title="https://twitter.com/RFERL/status/1143205621354893313?s=20&amp;t=-Z9jgSRmdrA7T1huStDvrA and https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/research/2023/10/repression-trade/">Georgia</a>, and <a href="https://twitter.com/AnnQuann/status/1613408370173837315" title="https://twitter.com/AnnQuann/status/1613408370173837315">Vietnam</a>.</p> <p>Cambodian police officers have been photographed armed with QB97 rifles (an export variant of Norinco’s QB95 rifle), and the same rifle is understood to be used by military and police bodies across Asia and Africa.</p> <h1>Mining</h1> <p>In 2015, Amnesty International <a href="https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2015/02/myanmar-foreign-mining-companies-colluding-serious-abuses-and-illegality/" title="https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2015/02/myanmar-foreign-mining-companies-colluding-serious-abuses-and-illegality/">published a report</a> claiming that Norinco was among a number of Chinese and Canadian companies to profit from serious human rights abuses and illegal activity around the Monywa copper mine complex in Myanmar. In 2010 a subsidiary of Norinco entered into a partnership with UMHEL, a company owned by the Myanmar military, to operate the Sabetaung and Kyisintaung (S&amp;K) and the Letpadaung copper mines. Amnesty argued that the company’s operations could lead to thousands of people being evicted from their land as the mining operation expanded, and that communities that oppose expanding mines have been targeted with harassment and arrests.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programmes/war-profiteer-companies" hreflang="en">War profiteer companies</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programme/war-profiteers" hreflang="en">War Profiteers</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/465" hreflang="en">Front Page</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/117" hreflang="en">China</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-police-militarisation-them--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--expert--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--node--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Police militarisation theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/pm-themes/equipment-training-and-tactics" hreflang="en">Equipment, training and tactics</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/pm-themes/who-profits" hreflang="en">Who profits?</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-companies--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-companies.html.twig * field--expert--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-companies.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--node--field-companies.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-companies.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Companies</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/713" hreflang="en">Norinco</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=42701&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="h7BeSdjUPzSzPgrHiki3aXefff_Zrsysl_s7MDNnl3s"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Mon, 22 Apr 2024 09:04:00 +0000 Andrew 42701 at https://wri-irg.org https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2024/war-profiteer-profile-norinco#comments War profiteer profile: Alsetex https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2024/war-profiteer-profile-alsetex <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--42691.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="42691" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-image--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image.html.twig * field--expert--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-image.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--node--field-image.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <picture> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_desktop/public/2024-02/15852628755_28017b7a94_k.jpg?itok=FpOiVBRq 1x" media="screen and (min-width: 992px)" type="image/jpeg"/> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2024-02/15852628755_28017b7a94_k.jpg?itok=ZfMpqAue 1x" type="image/jpeg"/> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2024-02/15852628755_28017b7a94_k.jpg?itok=ZfMpqAue" alt="Two police officers in the foreground, one armed with a large tear gas launcher" title="French police armed with a Alsetex Cougar tear gas launcher. Image: Pierre-Selim via Flickr CC2.0" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> </picture> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <div class="caption">French police armed with a Alsetex Cougar tear gas launcher. Image: Pierre-Selim via Flickr CC2.0</div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 19 Feb 2024</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Alsetex is a French company, owned by the Etienne Lacroix Group including various types of non-lethal munitions and crowd control equipment. Products manufactured by Alsetex include tear gas grenades, stun grenades, riot control agents, and a range of related launchers.</p> <p>According to the Registre du Commerce et des Sociétés, the company was first registered in 1973, in 2022 Alsetex had a turnover of €34m, and in 2021 had a staff of 182 people. The company does not maintain a very visible online presence, but does market their products at a number of arms fairs around the world. For example, they have been registered to attend: Milipol Paris (France), IDEX 2023 (UAE), <a href="https://armyrecognition.com/eurosatory_2014_show_daily_news_coverage_report/alsetex_presents_its_landcougar_12_and_56-mm_range_in_live_demonstration_during_eurosatory_2014.html" target="https://armyrecognition.com/eurosatory_2014_show_daily_news_coverage_report/alsetex_presents_its_landcougar_12_and_56-mm_range_in_live_demonstration_during_eurosatory_2014.html">Eurosatory </a>(France), Milipol Qatar, World Defence Show 2022 (Saudi Arabia), and Defence Services Asia (Malaysia).</p> <p>Equipment and weapons manufactured by Alsetex have been observed being used by police and security forces in a number of locations around the world, including those with significant human rights concerns, and targeting nonviolent protesters. For example, there is evidence of Alsetex weapons being used in: Senegal, <a href="https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/afr16/2100/2015/en/" target="https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/afr16/2100/2015/en/">Burundi</a>, Lebanon, France, <a href="https://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-XML2HTML-en.asp?fileid=24292&amp;lang=en" target="https://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-XML2HTML-en.asp?fileid=24292&amp;lang=en">Côte d’Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Bahrain</a>, <a href="https://reflets.info/articles/alsetex-maintien-de-l-ordre-partout-justice-nulle-part" target="https://reflets.info/articles/alsetex-maintien-de-l-ordre-partout-justice-nulle-part">Benin, Madagascar, Ghana, and Liberia. </a></p> <p>The company’s Cougar launchers <a href="https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-us-marine-lance-cpl-chase-m-graves-grenadier-with-spmagtf-crisis-response-129753510.html" target="https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-us-marine-lance-cpl-chase-m-graves-grenadier-with-spmagtf-crisis-response-129753510.html">have also been photographed</a> in 2014 being used in a training session by American soldiers who are part of the SPMAGTF Crisis Response – Africa.</p> <h1>Launchers</h1> <h2>Senegal</h2> <p>Among a number of other African countries, Alsetex’s Cougar launcher has been identified being used by security forces in Senegal on a number of occasions, as recently as February 2024.</p> <p>In May 2023, the French journalist Maxime Sirvins tweeted a number of images showing members of the Senegalese police holding Cougar launchers, as well as dozens of spent GM2L tear gas canisters manufactured by Alsetex in 2021.</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-conversation="none"><p dir="ltr" lang="fr" xml:lang="fr">On retrouve déjà le célèbre lanceur Cougar qui permet de tirer des grenades de 56mm.<br /> Il est fabriqué par la société française Alsetex 🇫🇷<a href="https://t.co/DFUe3PpN93">https://t.co/DFUe3PpN93</a> <a href="https://t.co/gfDGl2TRvK">pic.twitter.com/gfDGl2TRvK</a></p> <p>— Maxime Sirvins (@MaximeSirvins) <a href="https://twitter.com/MaximeSirvins/status/1661323319704944640?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">May 24, 2023</a></p></blockquote> <script async="" src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script><p>More recently, footage shared by Al Jazeera clearly shows riot police firing canisters from a Cougar launcher at a group protesting the delay in an election in February 2024. The footage can be seen <a href="https://youtu.be/cvPV2CCpqe4?t=19" target="https://youtu.be/cvPV2CCpqe4?t=19">here</a> at 0:19 seconds.</p> <h2>Lebanon</h2> <p>Cougar launchers and tear gas grenades manufactured by Alsetex have also been identified being used by <a href="https://twitter.com/drfigtree/status/635216532293951488" target="https://twitter.com/drfigtree/status/635216532293951488">Lebanese security forces</a> against people taking part in the “You Stink” movement in 2015.</p> <h2>Vehicle-mounted</h2> <p>Cougar launchers can also be mounted on vehicles, such as the Berliet VXB-170 armoured vehicle. The VXB has been <a href="https://www.newsweek.com/france-military-vehicles-war-zones-paris-yellow-vests-1249946" target="https://www.newsweek.com/france-military-vehicles-war-zones-paris-yellow-vests-1249946">used in France</a> against the Gilets Jaunes.</p> <h1>Grenades</h1> <h2>France</h2> <p>It is perhaps unsurprising that Alsetex’s products have been widely used by the French police. There is significant evidence of the company’s equipment being widely used against social movements like the Gilets Jaunes.</p> <p>The GLI-F4 grenade contains 10g of CS gas and 26g of TNT high explosive, and have been classified as weapons of war in the French Internal Security Code. Despite this, they have been used extensively against civilians in France, with a reported <a href="https://reporterre.net/Les-gendarmes-ont-deverse-une-quantite-record-de-grenades-sur-la-Zad-de-Notre" target="https://reporterre.net/Les-gendarmes-ont-deverse-une-quantite-record-de-grenades-sur-la-Zad-de-Notre">three thousand such grenades</a> – including some expired stock – being used against the Notre-Dames-des-Landes ZAD in April 2018.</p> <p>There are a number of documented cases of GLI-F4 grenades causing life-changing injuries, including the loss of hands and limbs. The sound created by a GLI-F4 grenade exploding is around 165db, enough to cause hearing damage to those in close proximity.</p> <p>In France, the GLI-F4 has been replaced with the GM2L grenade – also manufactured by Alsetex - which doesn’t contain TNT. However, <a href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200127174016/https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/27/world/europe/france-tear-gas-grenades.html" target="https://web.archive.org/web/20200127174016/https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/27/world/europe/france-tear-gas-grenades.html">critics described this</a> as a “fake gesture”.</p> <p>And there are significant concerns about the impact of its use from groups like <a href="https://lethalindisguise.org/case-studies/france/" target="https://lethalindisguise.org/case-studies/france/">Physicians for Human Rights</a>. The GM2L is still an explosive grenade with 10g of CS powder, and produces 160db at 10m.</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet"><p dir="ltr" lang="en" xml:lang="en">The <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/GM2L?src=hash&amp;ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#GM2L</a> is an explosive grenade, with 10g of pure CS powder, and 160dB at 10m.<br /> Explosive grenades pose a risk of life changing serious injury, or death. The GM2L is not suitable for crowd control - use should immediately be suspended. Tracking? <a href="https://twitter.com/ElluinA?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">@ElluinA</a> <a href="https://twitter.com/Desarmons_les?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">@Desarmons_les</a> <a href="https://t.co/xPAegJILSN">https://t.co/xPAegJILSN</a></p> <p>— Omega Research Foundation (@Omega_RF) <a href="https://twitter.com/Omega_RF/status/1337009493541052419?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">December 10, 2020</a></p></blockquote> <script async="" src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script><h2>Democratic Republic of Congo</h2> <p>Amnesty International has also <a href="https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/afr62/007/2012/en/" target="https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/afr62/007/2012/en/">reported in 2012</a> that 900 GM2L grenades were exported to the Democratic Republic of Congo, alongside other equipment manufactured by Alsetex (72 56mm Cougar Multi-light grenade launchers, 80 FAR smoke grenades, 720 GENL stinger grenades, 800 BDBE 40mm low velocity kinetic defence rounds).</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/465" hreflang="en">Front Page</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programme/war-profiteers" hreflang="en">War Profiteers</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programmes/war-profiteer-companies" hreflang="en">War profiteer companies</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/123" hreflang="en">France</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/206" hreflang="en">Senegal</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/202" hreflang="en">Ivory Coast</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/208" hreflang="en">Congo, Democratic Republic of</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/171" hreflang="en">Bahrain</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-police-militarisation-them--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--expert--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--node--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Police militarisation theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/pm-themes/who-profits" hreflang="en">Who profits?</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/pm-themes/equipment-training-and-tactics" hreflang="en">Equipment, training and tactics</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-companies--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-companies.html.twig * field--expert--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-companies.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--node--field-companies.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-companies.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Companies</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/504" hreflang="en">SAE Alsetex</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=42691&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="Y_-tfh9oXM7EH958qGTwBgepEm1-goMfrc63KTuTHl4"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Mon, 19 Feb 2024 17:04:00 +0000 Andrew 42691 at https://wri-irg.org https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2024/war-profiteer-profile-alsetex#comments War profiteer profile: Société d'Application des Procédés Lefebvre (SAPL) https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2023/war-profiteer-profile-societe-dapplication-des-procedes-lefebvre-sapl <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--42646.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="42646" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-image--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image.html.twig * field--expert--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-image.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--node--field-image.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <picture> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_desktop/public/2023-10/screenshot_2023-10-23_at_13.23.10.png?itok=FzQSElWI 1x" media="screen and (min-width: 992px)" type="image/png"/> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2023-10/screenshot_2023-10-23_at_13.23.10.png?itok=jJtwYMc6 1x" type="image/png"/> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2023-10/screenshot_2023-10-23_at_13.23.10.png?itok=jJtwYMc6" alt="Heavily armed police officers in silhouette. One is firing a shotgun." title="Lebanese police officers fire on protesters. Image: @mgdowney via Twitter" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> </picture> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <div class="caption">Lebanese police officers fire on protesters. Image: @mgdowney via Twitter</div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 23 Oct 2023</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p><b>We are grateful to the work of Stop Fuelling War, who provided much of the information used in this profile.</b></p> <p><span style="font-weight:normal">Société d'Application des Procédés Lefebvre (SAPL) is a French company that specialises in the manufacture of weapons and equipment for use by law enforcement, including “non-lethal” weapons, ammunitions, aerosols, shields and silencers. They also provide training in the products they manufacture. 60-70% of SAPL’s income comes from the French government, but SAPL also exports to a number of other countries. In 2022, the company <a href="https://annuaire--entreprises-data-gouv-fr.translate.goog/donnees-financieres/329107213?_x_tr_sl=fr&amp;_x_tr_tl=en&amp;_x_tr_hl=en-US&amp;_x_tr_pto=wapp&amp;_x_tr_hist=true">reported</a> income of €2.7m.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight:normal">The company was formed in 1983 by Jean Lefebvre, following a patent that for a design for a less-lethal bullet in 1979. The Lefebvre family had a long history of manufacturing weapons. The company remains under the control of members of the same family. The company manufactures its products in Gauville in northern France, where it also has its head offices.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight:normal">SAPL has exhibited at a range of arms fairs, such as </span>Milipol Asia-Pacific and Milipol in France in 2022.</p> <h1 class="western">Controversies</h1> <p>In September 2023 SAPL was fined €150,000 (including €75,000 suspended), having exported grenades between 2012 to a number of countries – including those with troubling human rights records – without respecting French customs obligations. It is understood that the exports were worth €715,000 and went to ten countries, including Japan, Congo, Togo, Saudi Arabia and Madagascar.</p> <p>The company is also under investigation following accusations for suspected bribery of foreign public officials over the last decade, with a verdict expected in March 2024.</p> <h1 class="western">Lebanon</h1> <p>Amnesty International has <a href="https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/press-release/2021/01/lebanon-new-evidence-reveals-french-law-enforcement-equipment-unlawfully-used-to-crush-protests/">reported</a> that SAPL equipment has been identified as being used by Lebanese security forces against peaceful protesters in 2015 and 2019. Amnesty said that SAPL Gomm-Cogne ammunition calibre cartridges were identified in videos shot during the protests. The french publication Libération shared Facebook images from people in Lebanon, which appear to show cartridges marked with SAPL’s logo.</p> <p><iframe allow="autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; picture-in-picture; web-share" allowfullscreen="true" frameborder="0" height="590" scrolling="no" src="https://www.facebook.com/plugins/post.php?href=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.facebook.com%2Fmazen.e.sayed.3%2Fposts%2Fpfbid02iRyN1PAZPwG3zwb5tQgUrnzeUVrnPKzswg9g2Gq7Z45UFfZ8om7KQTrQXAVNRDb5l&amp;show_text=true&amp;width=500" style="border:none;overflow:hidden" width="500"></iframe></p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programme/war-profiteers" hreflang="en">War Profiteers</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programmes/war-profiteer-companies" hreflang="en">War profiteer companies</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/465" hreflang="en">Front Page</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/123" hreflang="en">France</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/154" hreflang="en">Lebanon</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/507" hreflang="en">Police militarisation</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-police-militarisation-them--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--expert--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--node--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Police militarisation theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/pm-themes/who-profits" hreflang="en">Who profits?</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=42646&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="pJRCfvo0ekZa7rPp3IAPLrxmuA-kRZbQzaPMkyaU5aw"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Mon, 23 Oct 2023 11:19:00 +0000 Andrew 42646 at https://wri-irg.org https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2023/war-profiteer-profile-societe-dapplication-des-procedes-lefebvre-sapl#comments War profiteer profile: Cheddite https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2023/war-profiteer-profile-cheddite <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--42644.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="42644" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-image--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image.html.twig * field--expert--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-image.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--node--field-image.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <picture> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_desktop/public/2023-10/saw-wunna-mo4o1amiodi-unsplash.jpg?itok=odDNmpEz 1x" media="screen and (min-width: 992px)" type="image/jpeg"/> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2023-10/saw-wunna-mo4o1amiodi-unsplash.jpg?itok=-en6rhPZ 1x" type="image/jpeg"/> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2023-10/saw-wunna-mo4o1amiodi-unsplash.jpg?itok=-en6rhPZ" alt="A mass protest in Myanmar. The photo shows hundreds of people in a street, from above" title="Mass protests in Myanmar were met with deadly force by the state security forces" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> </picture> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <div class="caption">Mass protests in Myanmar were met with deadly force by the state security forces</div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 04 Oct 2023</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p><span style="line-height:100%">Cheddite is a French-Italian company with headquarters in Livorno, Italy and Bourg-lès-Valence, France. They are one of the world’s largest manufacturers of empty shot gun shells and primers. In 2021 they reported a turnover of €58.4m, and a net income of €4.5m The company was established in 1901, manufacturing explosives for use in mining and quarrying, and moved into the production of shotgun shells and primers in the 80s.</span></p> <p><span style="line-height:100%">As well as fully completed shotgun shells, Cheddite also shells and primers to other companies who, in turn, add their own gunpowder and projectile before selling them on. The projectile can take many forms, from a large number of small spheres made out of metal or rubber, to single large projectiles, sometimes called “slugs”, which can be made from a wide range of materials. The company advertises its products as for use by hunters. However, a number of times the company’s products have been identified as being used by oppressive regimes against protesters.</span></p> <h1 class="western">Use for oppression</h1> <p>There are at least two examples of Cheddite shotgun shells being found following extreme violence by oppressive regimes, targetting protesters: in Iran in 2022, and Myanmar in 2021. In both cases arms embargoes were meant to restrict the movement of weapons and equipment.</p> <h2 class="western">Iran</h2> <p>An EU Council regulation passed in 2011 is meant to stop the “export, directly or indirectly, [of] equipment which might be used for internal repression" in Iran, including "firearms, ammunition and related accessories". Despite this, Cheddite cartridges were found in multiple cities as police forces tried to stop mass protests. <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deaths_during_the_Mahsa_Amini_protests">Hundreds of people were killed</a> during the protests by the authorities, including many from gunshot wounds.</p> <p>An investigation by <a href="https://observers.france24.com/en/middle-east/20221125-iran-protests-eu-shotgun-cartridges-cheddite-sanctions">The Observers for France24</a> identified photos of Cheddite cartridges being widely shared on online Iranian hunting forums since 2013. It appears the cartridges were filled and sold in Iran by a company called Shahid Shiroudi Military Industries, identifed by the brand name Shahin.</p> <h2 class="western">Myanmar</h2> <p>After images of Cheddite shells were photographed in Myanmar during protests against a military coup in 2021, Italian investigators tried to understand how the shells arrived there. It appears they may have used a Turkish company YAF, - itself owned by ZSR Patlayici Sanayi A.S. - as an intermediary.</p> <p>Twitter posts appear to show spent Cheddite shotgun shell casings retrieved from the ground in Myanmar, alongside images of what appear to be ZSR rubber bullets (though it is not clear from the photos if the photos are showing the same shell).</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-conversation="none"><p dir="ltr" lang="en" xml:lang="en">Myanmar Military Terrorists fired the guns to disperse the protest in Pathein around 11:30am this morning.</p> <p>Is CHEDDITE Italy made? ?<a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/WhatsHappeningInMyanmar?src=hash&amp;ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#WhatsHappeningInMyanmar</a><a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/Mar10Coup?src=hash&amp;ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#Mar10Coup</a> <a href="https://t.co/pGygxvMg2t">https://t.co/pGygxvMg2t</a></p> <p>— Hane Latt_29 (@MannyMontana29) <a href="https://twitter.com/MannyMontana29/status/1369618474297921539?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">March 10, 2021</a></p></blockquote> <script async="" src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script><p> </p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-conversation="none"><p dir="ltr" lang="en" xml:lang="en">A man holding <a href="https://twitter.com/cheddite_italy?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">@cheddite_italy</a><br /> cartridge used by <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/MyanmarMilitaryCoup?src=hash&amp;ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#MyanmarMilitaryCoup</a> Security Forces during cracked down on Protestors today in Sanchaung, Yangon, <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/Myanmar?src=hash&amp;ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#Myanmar</a>. <a href="https://twitter.com/EUMyanmar?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">@EUMyanmar</a><br /> What is your role in <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/Myanmar?src=hash&amp;ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#Myanmar</a> ?Wait and See? Source <a href="https://twitter.com/IrrawaddyNews?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">@IrrawaddyNews</a><br /> Burmese Edition <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/WhatsHappeningInMyanmar?src=hash&amp;ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#WhatsHappeningInMyanmar</a> <a href="https://t.co/QJLQKTGdHZ">pic.twitter.com/QJLQKTGdHZ</a></p> <p>— Khun The Great (@KhuntheGreat) <a href="https://twitter.com/KhuntheGreat/status/1366684277589508098?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">March 2, 2021</a></p></blockquote> <script async="" src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script><p>However, Cheddite has previously owned shares in YAF, which Italian journalists <a href="https://global.ilmanifesto.it/after-italian-bullets-discovered-in-myanmar-legislators-focus-on-arms-loopholes/">claim</a> “would have allowed the Anatolian company to produce and market Cheddite-Yaf branded cartridges on its own”.</p> <p>Researchers from Amnesty International also tweeted about the relationship between Cheddite and ZSR in 2021, at the time of the protests against the coup.</p> <p> </p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-conversation="none"><p dir="ltr" lang="en" xml:lang="en">Cheddite, a Franco-Italian company, isn't manufacturing these shotgun shells. Instead, they supply the brass to ZSR, a Turkish company, which then adds the casing and rubber bullets and sells the complete product. Here's a tweet w/ both the cart's &amp; box: <a href="https://t.co/gfw6cbMqBA">https://t.co/gfw6cbMqBA</a></p> <p>— Brian Castner (@Brian_Castner) <a href="https://twitter.com/Brian_Castner/status/1370000804116054016?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">March 11, 2021</a></p></blockquote> <script async="" src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script><h1>Senegal</h1> <p>In May 2023, activists in Dakar, the capital of Senegal, collected at least 50 shotgun casings used by the Senegalese security forces to crackdown on anti-government protesters. At least 23 deaths were <a href="https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2023/06/senegal-amnesty-international-demande-une-enquete-independante-sur-la-repression-meurtriere-lors-des-manifestations">documented</a> by Amnesty International.</p> <p> </p><blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-conversation="none"> <p lang="fr" dir="ltr" xml:lang="fr">Des cartouches sans marquages/logo ont aussi été utilisées massivement.<br /><br />Les cartouches viennent de la marque franco-italienne Cheddite qu'on retrouve entre autre en Birmanie et en Iran. 🇫🇷🇮🇹 <a href="https://t.co/TsHIGkEcGp">pic.twitter.com/TsHIGkEcGp</a></p> <p>— Maxime Sirvins (@MaximeSirvins) <a href="https://twitter.com/MaximeSirvins/status/1661323330329231361?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">May 24, 2023</a></p></blockquote> <script async="" src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programme/war-profiteers" hreflang="en">War Profiteers</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programmes/war-profiteer-companies" hreflang="en">War profiteer companies</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/118" hreflang="en">Myanmar</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/111" hreflang="en">Iran</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/123" hreflang="en">France</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/112" hreflang="en">Italy</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/256" hreflang="en">Turkey</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/206" hreflang="en">Senegal</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/507" hreflang="en">Police militarisation</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-police-militarisation-them--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--expert--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--node--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Police militarisation theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/pm-themes/who-profits" hreflang="en">Who profits?</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/pm-themes/equipment-training-and-tactics" hreflang="en">Equipment, training and tactics</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/pm-themes/repression-protest" hreflang="en">Repression of protest</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-companies--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-companies.html.twig * field--expert--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-companies.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--node--field-companies.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-companies.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Companies</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/711" hreflang="en">Cheddite</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=42644&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="hcXh3kYvSSoNswn5Uo94QkE2zolN6dVIpcLzPw-WeJo"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Wed, 04 Oct 2023 15:54:00 +0000 Andrew 42644 at https://wri-irg.org https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2023/war-profiteer-profile-cheddite#comments War profiteer profile: Wagner Group https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2023/war-profiteer-profile-wagner-group <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--42619.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="42619" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-image--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image.html.twig * field--expert--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-image.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--node--field-image.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <picture> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_desktop/public/2023-07/russiansecuritybangui.png?itok=pmdRrSet 1x" media="screen and (min-width: 992px)" type="image/png"/> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2023-07/russiansecuritybangui.png?itok=Af9fcLPn 1x" type="image/png"/> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2023-07/russiansecuritybangui.png?itok=Af9fcLPn" alt="Russian mercenaries providing security for the President of the Central African Republic" title="Russian mercenaries providing security for the President of the Central African Republic Photo: Clément Di Roma/VOA, public domain" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> </picture> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <div class="caption">Russian mercenaries providing security for the President of the Central African Republic Photo: Clément Di Roma/VOA, public domain</div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 12 Jul 2023</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p><strong>Content warning: this article makes references to sexual violence, torture, and other details that some readers may find upsetting.</strong></p> <p>The Wagner Group is a Russian paramilitary organisation founded in 2014 by former <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GRU_(Russian_Federation)" target="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GRU_(Russian_Federation)">GRU</a> officer <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dmitry_Utkin" target="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dmitry_Utkin">Dmitry Utkin</a> and businessman Yevgeny Prigozhin, and has been described as “one of Russia’s most influential foreign policy tools”. At its founding Prigozhin had close business ties to the Russian president Vladamir Putin, while Utkin has close ties to the Night Wolves, an ultra-nationalist and white supremacist motorcycle club. Since its founding, Wagner Group has become known for its readiness to use extreme levels of violence and brutality during its operations. The group has pushed hard for access to resource rich areas of Africa, in some cases accepting mineral extraction and logging rights in exchange for its military services. These operations have been <a href="https://www.forbes.com/sites/anafaguy/2023/06/25/where-does-wagner-get-its-money-how-russias-mercenaries-turned-rebels-earned-millions-from-contracts-and-mining-deals/" target="https://www.forbes.com/sites/anafaguy/2023/06/25/where-does-wagner-get-its-money-how-russias-mercenaries-turned-rebels-earned-millions-from-contracts-and-mining-deals/">immensely profitable</a>. For example, in 2018, oil companies connected to Prigozhin were reportedly offered a 25% stake in any oil fields that Wagner Group managed to seize from ISIS in Syria. By 2020, one of these companies generated $134 million in gross sales and $90 million in profit from these Syrian oil fields.</p> <p>Until recently, Wagner Group has operated relatively discreetly around the world, with involvement recorded in Syria, Libya, South Sudan, the Central African Republic, Venezuela, Mozambique, and Ukraine. As well as direct involvement in conflict, the company also provides military support, training, and security services for politicians and at mining and other key sites. The Wagner Group has become well known for its active role in Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, where it has played a pivotal role in some of the military activities taking place there.</p> <p>The Wagner Group doesn’t appear to exist as a single entity, but rather as a “sprawling network of interacting companies”, as according to the Financial Times. Putin has said that the Russian state fully funds the Wagner Group, <a href="https://www.politico.eu/article/vladimir-putin-yevgeny-prigozhin-russia-kremlin-gave-wagner-group-nearly-1-billion-in-the-past-year/" target="https://www.politico.eu/article/vladimir-putin-yevgeny-prigozhin-russia-kremlin-gave-wagner-group-nearly-1-billion-in-the-past-year/">telling a meeting of Russian defense</a> officials that the state paid “more than 86 billion rubles (approximately $940 million) to the Wagner Group”.</p> <p>This profile will focus on Wagner Group’s activities outside of Ukraine.</p> <h1>Libya</h1> <p>The Wagner Group is involved in several conflicts across Africa, providing an array of services to Libya, Sudan, South Sudan, Mozambique, and the Central African Republic. In Libya, Wagner Group supported Khalifa Hiftar’s Libyan Arab Armed Forces (LAAF) in a 2019-2020 assault on Tripoli, <a href="https://www.hrw.org/news/2022/05/31/libya-russias-wagner-group-set-landmines-near-tripoli" target="https://www.hrw.org/news/2022/05/31/libya-russias-wagner-group-set-landmines-near-tripoli">laying land mines and booby traps</a>, weapons that have been banned under international law because they are not able to discriminate between civilians and military personnel. Evidence collected by the <a href="https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-58009514">BBC suggests</a> that the Wagner Group played a key role in laying anti-personnel mines in the area.</p> <h1>Central African Republic</h1> <p>In the Central Africa Republic, Wagner Group has profited from extractivism and logging operations, after around 1000 Wagner mercenaries entered the country in 2016 to defend the government of President Faustin-Archange Touadéra. Wagner Group were given unrestricted logging rights, and control of the Ndassima gold mine. A woman who’s husband worked at the mine <a href="https://www.nbcnews.com/news/africa/wagner-ukraine-russia-central-african-republic-gold-mine-putin-rcna86392" target="https://www.nbcnews.com/news/africa/wagner-ukraine-russia-central-african-republic-gold-mine-putin-rcna86392">told NBC News</a> that he and several others were killed after refusing to leave when Wagner Group mercenaries arrived to violently take over the mine. Others said that the group specifically targetted civilians to terrorize them, before taking over the mine. Since 2021 the mine has seen extensive development, with sophisticated processing equipment installed. Analysts have said there is evidence of a long-term plan for significant resource extraction that might be <a href="https://www.nbcnews.com/news/africa/wagner-ukraine-russia-central-african-republic-gold-mine-putin-rcna86392" target="https://www.nbcnews.com/news/africa/wagner-ukraine-russia-central-african-republic-gold-mine-putin-rcna86392">worth $100 million a year</a>.</p> <p>In 2023 there were reported clashes between the rebel group Coalition of Patriots for Change and Wagner forces, with Wagner sustaining relatively heavy casualties after an ambush. Rebel factions have <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/world/2023/feb/02/wagner-mercenaries-sustain-losses-in-fight-for-central-african-republic-gold" target="https://www.theguardian.com/world/2023/feb/02/wagner-mercenaries-sustain-losses-in-fight-for-central-african-republic-gold">started fighting together</a> to protect their mining interests as Wagner was tried to secure access to mining sites.</p> <h1>Mozambique</h1> <p>In 2019, CNN <a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2019/11/29/africa/russian-mercenaries-mozambique-intl/index.html" target="https://edition.cnn.com/2019/11/29/africa/russian-mercenaries-mozambique-intl/index.html">reported on Wagner Groups operations in Mozambique</a>, where the group was contracted to support the Mozambique army in counter-insurgency operations in its northern province. The deployment of 160 Wagner Group contractors took place a month after a visit by the Mozambique president Filipe Nyusi to Moscow. The group arrived on Russian An-124 transport planes, at least one of which belonged to the Russian airforce. A number of Russian companies are competing with other international groups to exploit Mozambique’s natural resources, including liquified natural gas and diamonds. It has been reported that the Wagner Group’s fighters withdrew and were replaced with troops from Rwanda after the Wagner Group failed to contain the insurgency.</p> <h1>Mali</h1> <p>A <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/world/2023/may/20/russian-mercenaries-behind-slaughter-in-mali-village-un-report-finds" target="https://www.theguardian.com/world/2023/may/20/russian-mercenaries-behind-slaughter-in-mali-village-un-report-finds">United Nations report published in May 2023</a> details the massacre of up to 500 civilians, believed to have been perpetrated by the Malian security forces and members of Wagner Group. The attack occurred in the village of Moura in the Inner Niger Delta region of Mali. Dozens of armed troops were dropped off by helicopters. Over five days, hundreds of people – the vast majority unarmed civilians – were killed.</p> <h1>Syria</h1> <p>The Wagner Group was <a href="https://www.rbth.com/economics/defence/2016/08/31/russias-wagner-group-fighters-sighted-in-syria_625551" target="https://www.rbth.com/economics/defence/2016/08/31/russias-wagner-group-fighters-sighted-in-syria_625551">first sighted in Syria in 2016</a>, with between 1000 and 1600 employees in the country. The company has been responsible for securing oil and gas wells seized by other Russian companies, and <a href="https://www.economist.com/europe/2017/11/02/how-wagner-came-to-syria" target="https://www.economist.com/europe/2017/11/02/how-wagner-came-to-syria">serving as “shock troops”</a> in the Syrian state’s offensive on Palmyra in 2016. It is thought hundreds of Wagner Group fighters were killed in the 2018 Battle of Khasham, when US airstrikes hit pro-regime positions near the towns of Khasham and Al Tabiyeh.</p> <p>In 2021, three NGOs - the International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH), the Syrian Center for Media and Freedom of Expression (SCM) and Russian rights group Memorial – launched a legal case against Wagner on behalf of a Syrian torture victim.</p> <p>In 2017, a video showing the brutal torture and murder of Hamadi Bouta, a Syrian Army deserter, by members of the Wagner Group was released. The footage showed Bouta being killed with a sledgehammer, beheaded, then set on fire. Wagner Group has since <a href="https://theintercept.com/2023/02/02/wagner-group-violence-sledgehammer/" target="https://theintercept.com/2023/02/02/wagner-group-violence-sledgehammer/">made the sledgehammer a key part of its branding</a>, including images of a sledgehammer in its logo, and on t-shirts and other merchandise.</p> <h1>Venezuela</h1> <p>In 2019 it <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/jan/25/venezuela-maduro-russia-private-security-contractors">was reported</a> that members of Wagner Group travelled to Venezuela to act as body guards for the president Nicolás Maduro. The deployment occurred as Russia and the US backed different sides of a conflict over control of Venezuela; Russia support Maduro, while the US threw its weight behind opposition leader Juan Guaido.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programmes/war-profiteer-companies" hreflang="en">War profiteer companies</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programme/war-profiteers" hreflang="en">War Profiteers</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/465" hreflang="en">Front Page</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/185" hreflang="en">Russian Federation</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/181" hreflang="en">Libya</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/158" hreflang="en">Syria</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/115" hreflang="en">Mozambique</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/233" hreflang="en">Central African Republic</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/182" hreflang="en">Mali</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/224" hreflang="en">Venezuela</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Wed, 12 Jul 2023 15:53:00 +0000 Andrew 42619 at https://wri-irg.org https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2023/war-profiteer-profile-wagner-group#comments War profiteer profile: Accuracy International https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2023/war-profiteer-profile-accuracy-international <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--42593.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="42593" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-image--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image.html.twig * field--expert--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-image.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--node--field-image.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <picture> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_desktop/public/2023-03/accuracy_international_sniper_rifle.jpg?itok=vghkYY_g 1x" media="screen and (min-width: 992px)" type="image/jpeg"/> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2023-03/accuracy_international_sniper_rifle.jpg?itok=f0pGyu9q 1x" type="image/jpeg"/> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2023-03/accuracy_international_sniper_rifle.jpg?itok=f0pGyu9q" alt="An Accuracy International sniper rifle" title="An Accuracy International AXMC long range sniper rifle. Photo credit: Rex Allen via Unsplash" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> </picture> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <div class="caption">An Accuracy International AXMC long range sniper rifle. Photo credit: Rex Allen via Unsplash</div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 28 Mar 2023</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Accuracy International is a British company based in Portsmouth, specialising in the production of high-end, hand built, precision sniper rifles and associated equipment. The company was founded in 1978 by professional sports shooters, but the weapons are now used around the world by military and police units. In 2017 the company was <a href="https://www.standard.co.uk/business/jim-armitage-accuracy-international-s-sales-are-growing-at-a-fair-clip-a3707476.html">reported</a> to have around 80 employees.</p> <p>Weapons manufactured by AI were used in 2009 by British soldiers to kill two Taliban fighters in Afghanistan, at a record-breaking distance of 2,475 meters. The weapons have also been used extensively in other conflict zones, including states accused of human rights abuses.</p> <p>As well as the British company, Accuracy International also has an American division, which manages distribution in the USA. In 2014 the company <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/sep/08/-sp-urban-shield-police-militarization-ferguson-oakland">was present at the Urban Shield arms expo</a> targetted towards police units from across the world.</p> <h1>AI Arctic Warfare</h1> <p>The AI Arctic Warfare is a bolt-action sniper rifle introduced in the 1980s, and designed for use in extremely cold conditions, but has been used extensively around the world, including a number of NATO member states, Azerbaijan, Bandladesh, Indonesia, South Africa, Saudi Arabia, and Sri Lanka, among others.</p> <h1>Uses around the world</h1> <p>In October 2020 the investigative reporting website Bellingcat published a report on the use of Accuracy International weapons around the world. The <a href="https://www.bellingcat.com/news/2020/10/10/how-british-made-sniper-rifles-ended-up-in-yemen-and-syria/">evidence collected by Bellingcat</a> used information from Campaign Against Arms Trade, Freedom of Information requests and geolocation and facial recognition technology to identify:</p> <ul><li> <p>Arctic Warfare rifles appear to have been used by Saudi forces operating in Yemen. Saudi Arabia has been heavily critcised for human rights abuses in Yemen.</p> </li> <li> <p>AI sniper rifles being used by Turkish forces in <span style="font-weight:normal">Afrin </span><span style="font-weight:normal">in Syria</span><span style="font-weight:normal"> </span><span style="font-weight:normal">in 2018, in an operation that was condemned by Human Rights Watch as having “failed to take necessary precautions to avoid civilian casualties”.</span></p> </li> <li> <p>The use of AI sniper rifles by Russian forces in Ukraine, including Crimea, in 2017, and in the Donbass region of eastern Ukraine.</p> </li> </ul><p>A sniper rifle which appears to have been manufactured by Accuracy International has been identified in use by Syrian special forces in 2015, with some experts speculating that the weapon <a href="http://web.archive.org/web/20201128235508/https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/british-sniper-rifles-used-against-assad-rebels-jmf00zffd3b">may have been transferred</a> from Russian to Syrian forces.</p> <p>Accuracy International weapons are known to be used by the Indonesian forces involved in the “Damai Cartenz” operation in West Papua. Reporting by Rory James in 2023 <a href="https://southeastasiaglobe.com/uk-papua-independence-conflict/">identifies a series of posts on Instagram</a> by Indonesian soldiers holding AI weapons have tagged conflict hotspots in the central highlands of West Papua. A post on the official Instagram accounts for the Yonif Raiders – an Indonesian unit notorious for human rights abuses – states that members of the unit are being trained with AI weapons, including practising “techniques for executing targets”.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programme/war-profiteers" hreflang="en">War Profiteers</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programmes/war-profiteer-companies" hreflang="en">War profiteer companies</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/465" hreflang="en">Front Page</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/92" hreflang="en">United Kingdom</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/121" hreflang="en">Saudi Arabia</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/149" hreflang="en">Yemen</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/501" hreflang="en">West Papua</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/216" hreflang="en">United States of America</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/158" hreflang="en">Syria</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/157" hreflang="en">Ukraine</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/185" hreflang="en">Russian Federation</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/63" hreflang="en">arms trade</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/62" hreflang="en">small arms</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/507" hreflang="en">Police militarisation</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-police-militarisation-them--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--expert--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--node--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Police militarisation theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/pm-themes/equipment-training-and-tactics" hreflang="en">Equipment, training and tactics</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/pm-themes/who-profits" hreflang="en">Who profits?</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=42593&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="yCR4XuFHJTAtlk-RZs-qTBPnM2NMzwlHb-EOcTvf2qM"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Tue, 28 Mar 2023 09:44:49 +0000 Andrew 42593 at https://wri-irg.org https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2023/war-profiteer-profile-accuracy-international#comments Italian shotgun shells used against protesters in Iran https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2022/italian-shotgun-shells-used-against-protesters-iran <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--42566.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="42566" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 16 Dec 2022</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p><strong>Warning: article contains injury detail some may find distressing.</strong></p> <p>An investigation by France24 has found evidence that shotgun cartridges manufactured in Italy and France by the company Cheddite have been used by Iranian security forces against protesters. The investigation found evidence of the use of the cartridges in cities across Iran, including Tehran, Yazd, Karaj, Rasht, Shiraz, and Mahabad.</p> <p>The cartridges were originally manufactured for hunting purposes, and appear to have been exported first to Turkey and then to Iran. Turkey is not a member of the European Union and is not bound by the EU's export controls.</p> <p>Cheddite has manufacturing facilities in France and Italy. The company produces empty shell cases with a metal base and primer, which is then sold to other companies who fill the case with an explosive powder and pellets.</p> <p>The Guardian has shared details of the devastating injuries that have been experienced by protesters in Iran, <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2022/dec/08/iranian-forces-shooting-at-faces-and-genitals-of-female-protesters-medics-say">including shotgun fire to women's breasts, genitals and faces. </a>Amnesty International have said at least 13 people have been killed with shotguns in Iran since 16th September, and the wider death toll is in the hundreds.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programme/war-profiteers" hreflang="en">War Profiteers</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/111" hreflang="en">Iran</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/112" hreflang="en">Italy</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/123" hreflang="en">France</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/507" hreflang="en">Police militarisation</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-police-militarisation-them--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--expert--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--node--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Police militarisation theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/pm-themes/repression-protest" hreflang="en">Repression of protest</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/pm-themes/equipment-training-and-tactics" hreflang="en">Equipment, training and tactics</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=42566&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="mc-xzOkl6gE2VG6DVL4_s8zy_VfU71AQPOm7OIiJ56U"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Fri, 16 Dec 2022 11:27:10 +0000 Andrew 42566 at https://wri-irg.org https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2022/italian-shotgun-shells-used-against-protesters-iran#comments War Profiteer Profile: CNO-Tech https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2022/war-profiteer-profile-cno-tech <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--42541.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="42541" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-image--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image.html.twig * field--expert--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-image.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--node--field-image.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <picture> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_desktop/public/2022-09/untitled-1.png?itok=pcjHaJYO 1x" media="screen and (min-width: 992px)" type="image/png"/> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2022-09/untitled-1.png?itok=URtGgJaM 1x" type="image/png"/> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2022-09/untitled-1.png?itok=URtGgJaM" alt="A multi-shot vehicle mounted tear gas launcher" title="The CNO-Tech STARK tear gas launcher" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> </picture> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <div class="caption">The CNO-Tech STARK tear gas launcher</div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 16 Sep 2022</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>CNO Tech is a South Korean arms company, who manufacturer a range of equipment of weapons for military and law enforcement use, including single and multi-shot “riot” launchers, vehicle-mounted launcher systems, stun grenades, flash bangs, CS gas grenades, foam impact munitions, and various types of armour and shields. The company also manufacturers practice munitions for the military and police. According to the company’s website they were established in 1997 and has offices listed in Seoul, as well as manufacturing facilities in eastern the Gyongsangbuk-do region of Korea.</p> <p>Relatively little information is publicly available about this CNO Tech, but they are listed as an exhibitor at the 2022 DX Korea arms fair, which is due to take place in September 2022, and has also been identified at other arms fairs, including <a href="https://twitter.com/Omega_RF/status/530383479704649728">IndoDefence in 2014</a> and at MILIPOL in Paris in 2013.</p> <p>CNO Tech is understood by WRI’s affiliate in South Korea – World Without War - to have sold its products to a wide range of oppressive regimes, including <a href="https://english.hani.co.kr/arti/english_edition/e_international/592743.html">Turkey</a>, Bangladesh, Togo, Indonesia, <a href="https://thediplomat.com/2013/12/south-koreas-tear-gas/">Bahrain</a>, Oman and Sri Lanka. In 2013, CNO Tech were identified as one of a number of South Korean companies who had exported millions of rounds of tear gas to Turkey, where they were heavily used by the Turkish police to subdue protests.</p> <p>The Omega Research Foundation, Bradford Non-Lethal Weapons Research Project, and Dr Michael Crowley, profiled the CNO Tech “STARK” 38/40mm launcher in their 2015 report “Tear Gassing by Remote Control”. <a href="https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/195222/Tear%20Gassing%20By%20Remote%20Control%20Report.pdf">The report includes correspondence</a> with the company which suggests that the launcher “can’t aim any target precisely – not like a hand-held launcher or a water cannon”. The weapon has a range of 180m.</p> <p> </p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programmes/war-profiteer-companies" hreflang="en">War profiteer companies</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programme/war-profiteers" hreflang="en">War Profiteers</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/169" hreflang="en">Korea, South</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/256" hreflang="en">Turkey</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/171" hreflang="en">Bahrain</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/507" hreflang="en">Police militarisation</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-police-militarisation-them--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--expert--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--node--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Police militarisation theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/pm-themes/equipment-training-and-tactics" hreflang="en">Equipment, training and tactics</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/pm-themes/who-profits" hreflang="en">Who profits?</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=42541&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="6svkxAgIfanl-kYgcFsreg6eSKoEN-P8RyPGjgs1YxU"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Fri, 16 Sep 2022 09:43:29 +0000 Andrew 42541 at https://wri-irg.org https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2022/war-profiteer-profile-cno-tech#comments