South Korea: No rights for conscientious objectors


According to a survey of 2,000 adults commissioned by the South
Korean Ministry of Defence, 68.1 percent, or 1,365 of respondents,
objected to allowing conscientious objectors to perform a substitute
service. Some 28.9 percent, or 580 of them, said they supported the
idea. The outcome of the survey runs counter to the results of an
October survey, officials of the Military Manpower Administration said.
The previous survey of 554 people, including lawmakers, lawyers,
professors, journalists and religious leaders, said 85.5 percent
supported the idea.

"The ministry's position that allowing alternative services for
conscientious objectors based on a national consensus remains
' Ministry spokesman Won Tae-jae told reporters. "At
the moment, the ministry believes implementing the alternative system
is premature.'

Hundreds of conscripts are jailed annually for their refusal to
serve in the armed forces, according to the Military Manpower
Administration (MMA). There were about 570 conscientious objectors last

The previous, center-left Roh Moo-hyun administration accepted a
recommendation by the National Human Rights Commission in December 2005
to allow substitute service for objectors, such as working at public
welfare facilities for a longer period of time than active service

The human rights watchdog recommended the government recognise the
individual right to refuse compulsory military service because of
religious beliefs.

Korea Solidarity for Conscientious Objection (KSCO) released a
statement on the same day, titled "Stop Making Excuses, Keep the promise!". In this statement, KSCO writes:

"Although this last survey conducted by the MMA showed many opposing
opinions on alternative service, it is important to point out that
there have been many other surveys that yielded just the opposite
results. MMA's public hearing held last October showed that over 80% of
community leaders were in favor of alternative service system, and in
the public opinion survey held last September by the Realmeter &
961Sample, the number of people who were in favor of alternative
service exceeded the other group (Realmeter: 44.3% in favor, 38.7%
against; 961 Sample: 55.9% in favor, 38.9% against). Thus, survey
results tend to vary by the time it‘s being conducted and the type of
questions, the government cannot base its decision based on one opinion

"On top of that, attempting to solve human rights issue of the
minority group using opinion survey is definitely a dangerous idea. By
definition, members of the minority group hold different ideas to
what's generally accepted in their society. Judging the minority based
on conventional standards, and forcing them to agree with them is a
serious threat to the diversity in democracy and an act of violence to
them. The MMA should never forget that a survey of public opinion is
nothing more than an effective tool to understand public's consensus,
and not an absolute criterion.

While South Korea's Supreme Court and Constitutional Court both
rules in 2004 that the right to conscientious objection is not
guaranteed by the Korean constitution, the United Nations Human Rights
Committee ruled on two individual complaints from South Korea in
January 2007 that not to provide for conscientious objection is a
violation of the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion
(Article 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political
Rights) (see co-update No 27,
February 2007
). The South Korean National Human Rights Commission
recommended to introduce the right to conscientious objection and a
substitute service for conscientious objectors in December 2005 (see co-update No 17, February 2006).

Consequently, the South Korean Ministry of Defence announced in
September 2007 that it would introduce the right to conscientious
objection (see co-update No 33,
October 2007
). However, since then the government changed, and the
conservative government in power now is looks at the right to
conscientious objection much less favourable.

Sources: The Korea Times: 68%
Oppose Alternative for Conscientious Objectors
, 24 December 2008,
Korea Solidarity for Conscientious Objection: Stop Making Excuses, Keep the
, 24 December 2008.


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