Country report and updates: Belarus

Last revision: 15 May 2005
15 May 2005

As published in The Right to Conscientious Objection in Europe, Quaker Council for European Affairs, 2005.


Conscription is enshrined in Article 57 of the 1994 Constitution and further regulated by the 1992 Law on Universal Military Duty and Military Service.

The length of military service is 18 months, and 12 months for university and college graduates.

All men between the ages of 18 and 27 are liable for military service. There are two call-up periods per year, one during spring and one during autumn.

Reservist obligations apply. According to a new Law on Reserve Service of January 2004, reservists may be obliged to undertake military training of up to 800 hours over a three-year period (two years for college graduates) and 250 hours a year subsequently.[1]

In 2003, Minister of Defence Maltsaw announced a possible reduction of military service to one year in the near future. Abolition of conscription is not foreseen.[2]


The armed forces comprise 83,000 troops, including 30,000 conscripts. Every year, approx. 87,000 young men reach conscription age; approx. 35 per cent are recruited.

Conscientious objection

Legal basis

The right to conscientious objection is enshrined in Article 57 of the 1994 Constitution, according to which: "Procedures regulating military service, and the grounds or conditions for exemption from military service or its replacement by alternative service, shall be further regulated by law".

In addition, the 1992 military service law stipulates in Article 5.1 and 14.3 that "universal military duty" may consist of either military service or alternative service.[3]

According to the Constitution, a law on alternative service should have been adopted two years after the adoption of the Constitution in 1994, which means before 30 March 1996.[4] However, no further legislation on conscientious objection has ever been introduced.

In 1994, the Belarusian Parliament discussed a draft law but it did not proceed with its implementation. In 1997, the Belarusian government stated to the United Nations Human Rights Committee that legislation on conscientious objection was envisaged. The Human Rights Committee in fact called upon the Belarusian government to pass such a law, providing for a civilian alternative service of equivalent length to military service, at an early date.[5]

In 2001, the Belarusian Parliament again discussed a draft law, which envisaged 27 months' alternative service, to be performed on collective farms, in factories or on building sites.[6] The draft law was under preparation in Parliament for several years, but in December 2004, it was eventually rejected by the Belarusian Parliament. The Ministry of Defence reportedly considered that the conditions of the draft law were too favourable for COs, a view which was apparently shared by a majority in Parliament. The Deputy Head of the National Security Commission stated that a different law on alternative service may be drafted in the future.[7]

Pending the introduction of a CO law, the legal basis of conscientious objection remains unclear. There is no substitute service available, only an unarmed military service within the armed forces. Moreover, this option is only available for COs who refuse military service on religious grounds.[8]


Every year, dozens of conscripts refuse military service and apply for an alternative service outside the armed forces. The exact number of applications is not known. According to the Ministry of Defence in May 2003, the number of applications for alternative service had dropped by 50 per cent.[9] More detailed figures are not available.

In some cases, COs are apparently allowed to serve in unarmed units of the armed forces, such as the construction battalions and railway troops.[10] Decisions on assignment to unarmed units are probably made by individual military commanders or conscription officers. It is not known which criteria are used to decide on such applications. However, all available sources suggest that only COs who refuse military service on religious grounds are allowed to do unarmed service. The Belarusian Constitutional Court in fact stated in 2000 that there are dozens of conscripts annually who "with their religious beliefs taken into account, are being sent to railway troops".[11]

In 2000, the case of Valentin Guhai attracted considerable attention. Guhai, a member of the Jehovah's Witnesses, asked to perform a civilian service outside the armed forces. His request was denied and he was sentenced by Rechitsa Regional Court to a conditional 18 months' prison sentence, on the condition that he would work for 18 months on a state construction project. However, in May 2000 the Belarusian Constitutional Court ruled that the constitution guarantees COs the right to a civilian alternative to military service, and it recommended to the government to take steps to ensure this right. Subsequently, Gomal Regional Court overruled Guhai's original sentence and reduced it to a one year suspended sentence.[12]

Since 2000, there have been no known cases of COs who have refused to perform unarmed military service and who were consequently prosecuted.

All known cases of COs are members of religious groups who forbid their members to bear arms. It is not known how applications that are made on secular pacifist grounds would be treated by the authorities. However, it seems unlikely that non-religious COs would be allowed to perform unarmed military service. Even the Constitutional Court, although repeatedly calling for legislation on conscientious objection, restricts the constitutional right to conscientious objection to religious grounds. According to its 2000 decision, citizens "shall have the right, in particular under religious beliefs, to substitute military service for an alternative one".[13]

The absence of clear legal provisions for conscientious objection means that the only way in which non-religious COs can avoid military service is by bribing draft officials or evading call-up.

Draft evasion

Draft evasion and desertion are punishable under Articles 435, 437, 445, 446 and 447 of the Criminal Code. Evasion of military registration is punishable by a fine or up to three months' arrest. Draft evasion is punishable by a fine or up to two years' imprisonment, if committed after administrative punishment was imposed. Desertion and evasion of military duties by mutilation or other means is punishable by up to seven years' imprisonment.[14]

Officially there are few draft evaders, the official number of 120 per year remaining unchanged for some years.[15] However, in 1998 and 1999 according to the Ministry of Defence, there were believed to be between 1,200 and 1,500 cases per year.[16]

There are no detailed figures available about the scale of criminal prosecution of draft evasion. According to several sources, COs face administrative sanctions or criminal prosecution for evading call-up for military service.[17]


[1] Information provided by the Belarusian Defence Attaché to the USA, quoted in: Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers: Child Soldiers Global Report 2004.
[2] 'Defence Minister pledges reduced conscription term', Minsk Belarus Television, 17 February 2003 (WPS Monitoring Agency).
[3] Decision of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Belarus of 26 May, Minsk No. D-98/2000,
[4] In accordance with Article 4 of the 1994 Law "On the Procedure Governing the Entry into Force of the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus" (Decision of the Constitutional Court D-98/2000).
[5] United Nations Human Rights Committee: Concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee: Belarus (CCPR/C/79/Add.86.), 19 November 1997.
[6] Alies Harkun: I don't want to send my son in the army, in: The right to freedom 92(20), Human Rights Centre "Viasna", Minsk, October 2001.
[7] 'Belarussian Parliament turns down bill on alternative service', Interfax, 17 December 2004.
[8] The 2004 report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights concludes that "claims to be a conscientious objector are accepted without further inquiry" (Civil and Political Rights, including the question of conscientious objection to military service, Report of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, United Nations Commission on Human Rights, 60th session (E/CN.4/2004/55), 16 February 2004). This conclusion is based on information provided by the Belarusian government. As this information is not publicly available, it is not known which information was exactly submitted. However, the conclusion drawn in the report of the High Commissioner is not in line with the actual practice, as described by several sources.
[9] 'About One Third of Recruits Unfit for Military Service', BASA-Press, 12 May 2003 (WPS Monitoring Agency).
[10] Decision of the Constitutional Court D-98/2000. US State Department Bureau for Human Rights, Democracy and Labor: International Religious Freedom report 2003.
[11] Decision of the Constitutional Court D-98/2000.
[12] Amnesty International: Conscientious Objector Valentin Gulai (EUR 49/12/00), Concerns in Europe January-June 2000 (EUR/01/03/00).
[13] Decision of the Constitutional Court D-98/2000.
[14] UNHCR: Basis of Claims and Background Information on Asylum Seekers and Refugees from the Republic of Belarus, October 2004.
[15] UNHCR (2004).
[16] '1,500 deserters', Belorusskya Delovaya Gazeta, Minsk, 3 September 1999.
[17] Representative of a NATO country's embassy, quoted in: Danish Immigration Service: Fact Finding Mission to Belarus, 30 January-7 February 2000, Copenhagen, 2000. International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights: Problems of Religious Freedom and Tolerance in Selected OSCE States, Report to the OSCE Supplementary Meeting on Freedom of Religion or Belief, Vienna 17-18 July 2003.

Recent stories on conscientious objection: Belarus

21 Dec 2023

From 4th-10th December 2023, #ObjectWarCampaign actions and events took place in over 30 locations across Europe. The demand for protection and asylum for conscientious objectors from Russia, Belarus and Ukraine was heard everywhere.

04 Dec 2023

The ObjectWar Campaign week of action is taking place between 4th-10th December with multiple events across Europe. With their actions, activists are calling on Russia, Belarus and Ukraine to stop the persecution of conscientious objectors and deserters; as well as calling on the European Union to protect those refusing to take part in the war in Ukraine. Find a list of events here.

28 Sep 2023

Call for actions from December 4, 2023 to the International “Human Rights Day” on December 10, 2023 in support of conscientious objectors and deserters from Russia, Belarus and Ukraine.

21 Sep 2023

On the International Day of Peace, September 21st 2023, IFOR, WRI, EBCO, and Connection e.V. urge the involved countries in the ongoing Russian war of aggression against Ukraine to mobilise for peace instead of war, and the EU and the international community to invest in diplomacy and negotiations instead of weapons and militarism.

24 Aug 2023

To:  President Gitanas Nausėda, e-mail: or online form at

Prime Minister Ingrida Šimonytė LRV, e-mail:

24 Aug 2023

Following the denial of political asylum by the Lithuanian authorities for the Belarusian peacebuilder and human rights defender Olga Karach (Volha Karach), the international campaign #protection4olga has just been launched to demand protection and asylum for the director of the organisation ‘Our House‘.

03 Aug 2023

The International Peace Bureau (IPB) has announced our intention to nominate three exceptional organizations for the 2024 Nobel Peace Prize: the Russian Movement of Conscientious Objectors, the Ukrainian Pacifist Movement, and the Belarusian organization “Our House”. The decision to nominate these three organizations is a testament to their unwavering dedication in advocating for the right to conscientious objection to military service and promoting human rights and peace in their respective countries.

05 Jul 2023





5th July, 2023

Delivered by Derek BRETT                                     Contact:

                                                                                    Derek BRETT

                                                                                    Main Representative to the UN, Geneva

04 Jul 2023

On 4th July, European Bureau for Conscientious Objection (EBCO) and War Resisters' International (WRI) have made an urgent appeal to the Lithuanian immigration authorities regarding the case of  Ivan Strashkevich, a conscientious objector from Belarus who is currently seeking asylum in Lithuania.

05 May 2023

Protection and asylum for all those from Russia, Belarus and Ukraine who refuse military service

Action week around the International Conscientious Objection Day

War is a crime against humanity. We condemn Russia’s war of aggression on Ukraine, which is contrary to international law and has led to hundreds of thousands of deaths and injuries and millions of refugees. Those who are sent to the front by their governments are particularly affected.